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81st Congress, 2d Session 


Union Calendar No, 1078^ 

- ^ < ^HSuse Report No.'^ 123 



Legal Bulwark of the Communist Party 

SEPTEMBER 17. 1950 
(Original release date) 

September 21, 1950. — Committed to the Committee of the Whole House 
on the State of the Union and ordered to be printed 



Prepared and Released by the 





Committee on Un-American Activities U. S. House of 


eighty-first congress, second session 

John S. Wood, Georgia, Chairman 

Francis E. Walter, Pennsylvania 
Burr P. Harrison, Virginia 
John McSweeney, Ohio 
Morgan M. Moulder, Missouri 
Richard M, Nixon, California 
-Francis Case, South Dakota 
Harold H. Velde, Illinois 
Bernard W. Kearney, New York 

Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., Counsel 

Louis J. Russell, Senior Investigator 

John W. Carrington, Clerk of Committee 

Benjamin Mandel, Director oj Research 


Uniom Calendar No. 1078 

81sT Congress ) HOUSE OF EEPEESENTATIVES ( Report 
£d Session ) t No. 3123 


September 21, 1950. — Committed to the Committee of the Whole House on the 
State of the Union and ordered to be printed 

Mr. Wood, from the Committee on Un-American Activities, submitted 

the following 


[Pursuant to H. Res. 5, 79th Cong., 1st sess.] 

The National Lawyers Guild is the foremost legal bulwark of the 
Communist Party, its front organizations, and controlled unions. 
Since its inception it has never failed to rally to the legal defense of the 
Communist Party and individual members thereof, including known 
espionage agents. It has consistently fought against national. State, 
and local legislation aimed at curbing the Communist conspiracy. 
It has been most articulate in its attacks upon all agencies of the 
Government seeking to expose or prosecute the subversive activities 
of the Communist network, including national, State, and local 
investigative committees, the Department of Justice, the FBI, and 
law enforcement agencies generally. Through its afliliation with the 
International Association of Democratic Lawyers, an international 
Communist-front organization, the National Lawyers Guild has 
constituted itself an agent of a foreign principal hostile to the interests 
of the United States. It has gone far afield to oppose the foreign 
policies of the United States, in line with the current line of the Soviet 

These aims — the real aims of the National Lawyers Guild, as 
demonstrated conclusively by its activities for the past 13 years of 
its existence — are not specified in its constitution or statement of 
avowed purpose. In order to attract non-Communists to serve as a 
cover for its actual purpose as an appendage to the Communist Party, 
the National Lawyers Guild poses benevolently as "a professional 
organization which shall function as an effective social force in the 
service of the people to the end that human rights shaU be regarded 
as more sacred than property rights." In the entire history of the 
guOd there is no record of its ever having condemned such instances 


of the violation of human rights as found in Soviet slave labor camps 
and in the series of Moscow trials, which shocked the civihzed world. 
_ The National Lawyers GuUd was formally organized at a conven- 
tion held in the Washington Hotel in Washington, D. C, on February 
19-22, 1937. National headquarters were established in the Nation's 
Capital, where they remain today. 

Commanists publicly hailed the founding of the National Lawyers 
Guild. New Masses, a weekly publication of the Communist Party, 
featured an article entitled "Defense for the Counsel — The Need for 
the National Lawyers Guild" in its issue of June 14, 1938 (pp. 19-21). 
This article, written by Charles Recht, an attorney for the Soviet 
Government and a member of the guild, observed that — 

With the growth of the American Labor Party in New York, and kindred 
progressive movements throughout the United States, the lawyers, who in many 
of the smaller communities are the nerve centers of pohtical activities, will be an 
invaluable aid in galvanizing the latent liberal elements of the country into a 
pohtical force. The National Lawyers Guild can and will form one of the most 
important adjuncts to a progressive movement representing the interests of the 
workers and farmers. 

The International Labor Defense, which was cited by former 
Attorney General Francis Biddle as "the legal arm of the Communist 
Party," also enthusiastically welcomed the new front, the National 
Lawyers Guild. The ILD stated in its 1936-37 yearbook that — 

The emergence of the National Lawyers Guild is regarded by the International 
Labor Defense as a heartening expression of the devotion of thousands of American 
attorneys to the American principle of democracy, and a concrete step on their 
part in the struggle to maintain and enlarge democratic rights (p. 64). 

Earl Browder, testifying before the House Committee on Un- 
American Activities on September 6, 1939, in his capacity as general 
secretary of the Communist Party, admitted that the National 
Lawyers Guild was a Communist transmission belt. 

This has been corroborated by Louis F. Budenz, former member of 
the National Committee of the Communist Party and one-time 
managing editor of its official newspaper, the Daily Worker. Testi- 
fying before the House Committee on Un-American Activities on 
April 3, 1946, Mr. Budenz described the National Lawyers Guild as 
a working ally of the Communist Party and stated that members of 
the guild would be under the influence of the party while "officers 
would be Communists or fellow travelers." Testifying again before 
the committee on July 20, 1948, Mr. Budenz said: 

In the National Lawyers Guild there is a complete dupMcate of the Communist 
Party's hopes and aspirations in that field, although there are a number of non- 
Communists in the National Lawyers Guild. In fact, some of their lawyers 
locally are not Communists, but they play the Communist game either wittingly 
or unwittingly. 


The National Lawyers Guild, as an organization, has intervened in 
the major court cases which have involved individual Communist 
leaders or officials of Communist-front organizations or unions. In 
every instance, the guild has interceded on the Communist side. 

The guild submitted a brief amicus curiae in the case of Robert 
Wood, an Oldahoma Communist official who was convicted of criminal 
syndicalism in that State in 1940. When, in the same year, avowed 
Communist Ben Gold and other leaders of the Communist-controlled 


Fur and Leather Workers Union were convicted in court of using 
terrorism in the labor field, the National Lawyers Guild again appeared 
as a friend of the court in behalf of the defendants. 

A resolution opposing deportation proceedings against Communist 
Harry Bridges was adopted by the fifth convention of the National 
Lawyers Guild in 1941. The guild also submitted a brief amicus 
curiae in the case. 

In recent years, the National Lawj^ers Guild has intervened as 
amicus curiae on behalf of the following leading Communists: 

Gerhart Eisler, Communist international agent convicted in 

United States com'ts of passport fraud and contempt of Congress; 

Leon Josephson, Communist attorney exposed as an official 

procurer of false passports for Communist agents such as Gerhart 

Eisler; Josephson was convicted of contempt of Congress; 

Carl Aldo Alarzani, convicted of concealing Communist affilia- 
tions wliile employed by the United States Government; 

John Howard Lawson and Dalton Trumho, Communist screen 
writers from Hollywood convicted of contempt of Congress; 

Eugene Dennis, secretary of the Communist Party, U. S. A., 
convicted of contempt of Congress. 

The National Law^yers Guild also intervened in behalf of — 
Richard Alorford, who as head of the subversive National Coun- 
cil of American-Soviet Friendship was convicted of contempt of 
Congress ; 

George Marshall, head of the now-defunct Communist front, 
the National Federation for Constitutional Liberties, also 
convicted of contempt of Congress; 

Edward K. Barsky and other officers of the subversive Joint 
Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee, convicted of contempt of 
Congress ; 

Eleven top officials oj the Communist Party, U. S. A., convicted 

of consphacy to advocate the overtlirow of the United States 

Government by force and violence. 

The committee is reproducing below a list of National Lawyers 

Guild members who have represented witnesses before the Committee 

on Un-American Activities. In each case, the witnesses have refused 

to answer questions regarding Communist affiliations propounded by 

the committee. In a number of cases espionage activities were 

involved. It should be noted in this connection that it is standard 

Communist practice to accept as attorneys only those who agree to 

abide by the party's propaganda and conspirative directives. Cases 

are known where attorneys who have volunteered theh services have 

been summarily rejected because they would not become partners to 

the party's ulterior pm-poses. 




Dates of 

Emanuel H. Bloch, 270 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 

Maurice Braverman, 15 South Gay St., Baltimore, 


Harold Cammer, 9 East 40th St., New York, N. Y.. 

Albert L. Colloms, 170 Broadway, New York, N. Y 
Bartley Crum, 598 Madison Ave., New York, N. Y. 

Mitchell A. Dubow, 705 Knickerbocker Bldg., Balti- 
more, Md. 

Clifford J. Durr, 1625 K St, NW., Washington, 
D. C. 

Joseph Forer, 1105 K St. NW., Washington, D. C... 

Ira Gollobin, 1441 Broadway, New York, N. Y_ 

Herman A. Qreenbero, 1105 K St. NW., Washing- 
ton, D. C. 
Bernard Jaffe, 52 Broadway, New York, N. Y 

Robert W. Kenny, 250 North Hope St., Los Angeles, 

Carol Kino, 220 Broadway, New York, N. Y 

Edward Kuntz, 207 4th Ave., New York, N. Y 

Harry C. Lamberton, 1645 Coimecticut Ave. NW., 
Washington, D. C. 

Daniel Lapidus, 100 5th Ave., New York, N. Y 

Leo Praeoer, 401 Broadway, New York, N. Y 

David Rein, 1105 K St. NW., Washington, D. C_._. 

David Scribner, 11 East 51st St., New York, N. Y 

Marion Bachraeh. 

Steve Nelson 

— .do 


Marcel Scherer 

Addie Rosen 

William Rosen 


John J. Abt 


Charles Kramer... 

Lee Pressman 

Elizabeth Sasuly.. 

Nathan Witt 


Clarence F. Hiskey 


Marcia Sand (Hiskey) . 

Lester Cole 

Edward Dmytryk 

Ring Lardner, Jr 

John Howard Lawson. 

Samuel Ornitz 

Adrian Scott.. 

Dalton Trumbo 

Mamice Braverman... 




John Anderson 

Rose Anderson 

David Joseph Bohm 


Irving David Fox 

Mary Jane Keeney 


Philip O. Keeney 

Ken Max Manfred 

Frank F. Oppenheimer 

Jacquenette Oppenheimer.. 

Bella Rodman 

Samuel J. Rodman 

Toma Babin 

P. L. James Branca 

Louise Berman (Bransten). 

Maurice Braverman 

Hanns Eisler 

Margaret C. Hinckley. 
William W. Hinckley.. 

Alexander Koral 

EIsaK. Miller 

Tilla Minowitz 

Helen Travis 

Charles Kramer 

Victor Perlo 

Hanns Eisler 

Abraham George Silverman... 

Herbert Biberman 

Lester Cole 

Edward Dmytryk 

Ring Lardner, Jr 

John Howard Lawson 

Samuel Ornitz 

Adrian Scott 

Dalton Trumbo 

Gerhart Eisler 

Alexander Stevens (J. Peters). 

Samuel Liptzen 

Henry H. Collins 

Eugene Dennis 

Alexander Koral 

Frank Hashmall .. 

Charlotte Oram 

Nathan Gregory Silvermaster. 

William Ludwig Ullmann 

Julius Emspak... 

James Matles 

Esther M. Tice 

Robert O. Whisner 

14, 1948 
14, 1948 

8. 1949 
June 21,1950 
Sept. 8,1948 
Aug. 26,1948 
Sept. 9,1948 
Aug. 20,1948 
Sept. 1, 1950 

Aug. 20,1948 
" " 12,1949 
20, 1948 

1. 1950 
9, 1948 

May 24,1949 
Sept. 9,1948 
30, 1947 
29, 1947 
30, 1947 
27, 1947 
29, 1947 
Oct. 28,1947 
Sept. 9,1948 

June 29,1949 
June 28,1949 
May 25,1949 
June 10,1949 
Sept. 27, 1949 
May 24,1949 
June 9, 1949 

Sept. 14, 1949 
June 14, 1949 

June 28,1949 
July 28, 1949 
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June 29,1949 
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Nov. 7, 1949 
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June 8, 1950 

Aug. 9, 1948 
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Aug. 30, 1950 
Aug. 12,1948 
Aug. 9, 1948 
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Aug. 12,1948 
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Oct. 29, 1947 
30, 1947 
29, 1947 
30, 1947 
27, 1947 
29, 1947 
Oct. 28,1947 
Feb. 6, 1947 
Aug. 30, 1948 
Mar. 5,1947 
Aug. 11,1948 


9. 1947 

9. 1948 
14, 1950 

June 28,1949 

Aug. 4, 1948 

10, 1948 

5. 1949 

July 15,1950 
Aug. 10,1949 




The committee does not dispute the right of witnesses appearing 
before it to have the benefit of counsel. However, the committee 
believes that the attorneys mentioned above knowingly or unknow- 
ingly function under a directive issued by the Central Control Com- 
mission of the Communist Party which prohibits its members from 
cooperating with the committee when subpenaed before it. Cases are 
known where persons subpenaed before the committee indicated a 
willingness to cooperate with the committee, but when these persons 
consulted certain of the attorneys listed above they refused to answer 
questions put to them by the committee. 


The real nature of the guild's philosophy comes into sharp focus 
during court procedures. Almost without exception, its leading 
members, despite their oath as lawyers to uphold the dignity of the 
court and respect the constitutional mores of jurisprudence, seek to 
bring the courts and its procedures into disrepute. They substitute 
insult for argument, resort to intimidation of judges by picket lines, 
parades,, and personal abuse. In other words, these leaders of the 
National Lawyers Guild have followed standard Cummunist practice 
which provides that — 

A Communist must utilize a political trial to help on the revolutionary struggle. 
Our tactics in the public proceedings of the law courts are not tactics of defense 
but of attack. Without clinging to legal formalities, the Communist must use 
the trial as a means of bringing his indictments against the dominant capitalist 
regime and of courageously voicing the views of his party (Johannes Buchner, 
The Agent Provocateur in the Labour Movement, Workers Library Publishers, 
New York, pp. 51-52). 

Federal Judge Harold Medina, in citing for contempt the attorneys 
who defended the 1 1 Communists convicted in New York of advocating 
the overthrow of the United States Government by force and violence, 
noted the frequent, and deliberate efforts on the part of the guild 
attorneys to inject Communist propaganda into the trial. Medina 
handed down sentences of contempt of court to the following attorneys 
for the Communists, all of whom are members of the National Lawyers 
Guild: Richard Gladstein, 6 months; George Crockett, 4 months; 
Maurice Sugar, 30 days; Louis McCabe, 4 months ; Abraham Isserman, 
4 months; Harry Sacher, 6 months. 

Abraham L. Pomerantz, a member of the guild, appeared as defense 
attorney for Valentin Gubitchev, a Russian charged with spying 
against the United States. Pomerantz based most of his questions on 
notes passed to him by a representative of the Soviet Embassy, seated 
at his side during the trial. The Russian official, an agent of the 
NKVD (Soviet secret police) named Novikoff, Hterally stage-managed 
the Gubitchev defense, a procedure without precedent in United 
States court history. 

Not only has the behavior of guild attorneys been noted officially by 
several Federal judges, but the American Bar Association in 1949 
received from its board of governors a recommendation that the 
American Bar Association bar from membership any person holding 
membership in the National Lawyers Guild. The action was based 
on the grounds that guild lawyers held behefs "mcompatible with 
membership in the American Bar Association." 



Any action on legislative or executive levels of the Government 
which tends to interfere with the Communist fifth-column operations 
in this country is guaranteed to evoke a vicious campaign of opposition 
from the National Lawyers Guild. 

A striking example is the present attack by the guild on the Federal 
Bureau of Investigation, echoing the current line of the Daily Worker 
and Moscow. The guild today is crying for an investigation of the 
FBI, the vigilant guardian of our national security, on the ridiculous 
grounds that it is a "gestapo" or "political police" whose — 

practices and policies * * * violate our laws, infringe our liberties, and 
threaten our democracy. 

This attack was timed simultaneously with the tactics employed by 
the defense in the espionage case involving Judith Coplon. 

This campaign is simply an intensification of a long-standing guild 
effort to discredit and vitiate the Federal Bureau of Investigation. At 
its fifth annual convention in 1941, the guild also took action opposing 
"the gestapo activities of the Federal Bureau of Investigation." At 
that time, the guild called for removal of FBI Director J. Edgar 
Hoover, demanded that Congress reduce the FBI appropriation, and 
registered opposition to a — 

pending appropriation bill to allot that Bureau $100,000 for the investigation of 
so-called subversive activities of Government employees (Lawyers Guild Re\'iew, 
June 1941, p. 66). 

J. Edgar Hoover, testifying on February 7, 1950 before a Senate 
Subcommittee on Appropriations, noted that the National Lawyers 
Guild has vociferously denounced the FBI since 1940. Mr. Hoover 
quoted a guild member as having stated the following at a meeting of 
this front organization in 1940: 

If we keep up the constant criticism of the FBI and of Hoover, and if this 
criticism is systematically kept up and followed all the time, particularly by 
organizations, it can and it will weaken the power of the FBI and hamper them 
very effectively. 

There is no doubt in the opinion of the committee that the National 
Lawyers Guild attacks on the Federal Bureau of Investigation are 
part of an over-all Communist strategy aimed at weakening our 
Nation's defenses against the international Communist conspiracy. 

The propaganda disseminated by the guild regarding the FBI is a 
duplicate of the line put out by Moscow, as demonstrated by the 
following broadcast by the Soviet Home Service short-wave network, 
dated February 7, 1950: 

FBI Center of Activities 

The center of the police terror organization of the United States is the notorious 
FBI. This institution was founded in 1908. From the day of its foundation 
the FBI became the jailer of the population. The head of this organization is 
responsible to the United States President and keeps him informed of future plans 
and results of past activity. The true bosses of the FBI, however, are the 60 
families of American millionaires. All of the activities of the FBI as well as the 
rest of the United States Government are directed toward the defense of the 
interests of these actual rulers of modern America. 

The FBI has been turned into an organization for intimidating the United 
States man in the street by means of all forms of violence, blackmail, terror, and 
other police measures. The monopoly press knows no limit to its praise of the 
FBI, which was some time ago pronounced by the UP to be "the greatest national 


institution of the United States." The FBI budget grows yearly. In 1949 it 
was almost * * * dollars. To this must be added the so-called special funds 
allocated by the President and the Government and the generous and certainly 
not insignificant presents from the monopolies who wish to develop still further 
the regime of police terror with a view to the final subjugation of the American 


At a time when the United States is the mainstay of the greatest imperialist 
offensive, the FBI has openly become the tool of hysterical, imperialist reaction 
determined to suppress all progressive thought in the country. The kings of 
Wall Street, the FBI, and the United States Department of Justice act in close 
contact with the ultrareactionary Committee for the Investigation of Un-American 

The attitude of the National Lawyers Guild and the Moscow- 
broadcasts bears a striking resemblance to the following editorial of 
the Daily Worker of June 13, 1950, page 7: 

Alibi for Stool Pigeons 

America's No. 1 lawbreaker, J. Edgar Hoover, wants more stool pigeons. 

His private police machine gets bigger and bigger every year. This govern- 
ment within the government taps phones illegally, opens private mail illegally, 
and infests American life with criminal perjurors. As it grows, it devours what is 
left of the United States Constitution. No secret political police can ever be 
justified on the basis of the American Constitution. This police makes its own 
laws and its own rules and operates with its own definitions of "disloyalty" and 

****** 4> 

The boss of this imitation-Gestapo now wants more money from Congress for 
more secret stoolies. Naturally, he can only get his dough if he drums up a 
picture of the terrible menace we face from the "Communists." The FBI's 
"thought control" boss hints that there are 540,000 Americans he would like to 
put in jail. He says they are "operatives" who are just crawling all over J. 
Edgar Hoover looking for our "secrets." * * * 


The National Lawyers Guild has also conducted a malicious cam- 
paign against the loyalty program, which was inaugurated under 
Executive Order 9835, on March 21, 1947, in the executive branch of 
the Government, to rid the Government of subversive and disloyal 

Resolutions attacking the loyalty program as illegal and demanding 
that the courts declare it unconstitutional were adopted at the na- 
tional convention of the guild held in New York City in May 1950. 
At a pubhc forum held under guild auspices on February 11, 1948, the 
loyalty program was attacked as a thought-control measure. 

The guild's opposition to the loyalty program was compiled into a 
23-page report entitled "The Constitutional Right to Advocate 
Political, Social, and Economic Changes — An Essential of Democ- 
racy," which was sent to Government officials. Members of Congress, 
the judiciary, the bar, labor and civic organizations. The conclusion 
of this report charged that "our citizens are denied the right to advo- 
cate fundamental social, economic, and political change." 

The guild has denounced the Attorney Generals listing of sub- 
versive organizations to be used in the Federal loyalty program as a 
menace to the liberty of the American people. The Guild's committee 
on constitutional rights and liberties has issued a report on the legality 
of the action of the Attorney General of the United States in issuing 

H. Kept. 3123, 81-2 2 


a listing of organizations as subversive pursuant to the President's 
loyalty order, in which it urged revocation and cancellation of the list. 


Any legislation which would curb the activities of Communists, 
regardless of the importance of such legislation to our national security, 
is faced with bitter opposition from the National Lawyers Guild. 

At its first convention, the guild opposed statutes providing that 
teachers take a loyalty oath or those "making criminal advocacy of or 
membership in any political party" (Daily Worker, February 23, 1937, 
p. 5). The latter was directed against pending legislation against 
criminal syndicalism, affecting the legal status of the Communist 
Party in various States. 

It has opposed legislation directed against the Communist Party, 
Voorhis registration bill, H. R. 1054; the Tenney law in California 
barring the Communist Party from the ballot (Lawyers Guild Review, 
June 1941, p. 66; Daily Worker, May 18, 1942, p. 5). 

The National Lawyers Guild denounced the anti-Communist pro- 
visions of the Taft-Hartley law on the ground that it was unconstitu- 
tional. Leonard B. Boudin, chairman of the labor law committee of 
the National Lawyers Guild, testified before a labor subcommittee of 
the House of Representatives concerning the non-Communist affidavit 
of the Taft-Hartley bill. At that time, Mr. Boudin stated that the 
non-Communist affidavit was an insult to the American worker 
because Congress thereby told the workers they were not wise enough 
to manage their own affairs. 

On May 7, 1948, the National Lawyers Guild denounced the Mundt- 
Nixon bill to control subversive activities. In commenting on the 
Mundt-Nixon bill, the Lawyers Guild Review, bimonthly publication 
of the National Lawyers Guild, made the following statement: 

It would be a costly error to treat this measure as merely another unwise legis- 
lative proposal to be analyzed and then routinely disapproved. We believe it is 
far more than that. Its concepts are so hostile to our democratic way of life that 
its enactment into law would amount to nothing less than a coup d'etat in con- 
stitutional guise. 

The parallel between the above opinion and that of Simon W. Ger- 
son, who represented the Communist Party, U. S. A., before the Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities on May 2, 1950, is striking. We 
quote his comment in part: 

Any bill which seeks such objectives will necessarily do force and violence to the 
American Constitution and the Bill of Rights. Let us therefore understand the 
issue clearly: The United States can have the Constitution or it can have the 
Mundt-Nixon bill. It can't have both. 

On May 2, 1950, Harry C. Lamberton, representing the National 
Lawyers Guild, testified before the Committee on Un-Auierican 
Activities against the Nixon bill (H. R. 7595). 

In the July 14, 1949, .issue>f j the Daily jWorker, the National 
Lawyers Guild was reported as urging the defeat of the Govern- 
ment's bill to fix heavier penalties for unlawful possession of secret 
documents, as referred to in the Foreign Agents Registration Act, 
and to lengthen the statute of limitatioas on prosecution of peacetime 


The autumn 1949 issue of The Guild Lawyer listed the followin-^ as 
highlights of the guild's activities: 

(a) Opposition to S. 595 and H. R 4703 finternal security bill) as written, and 
urging drastic revisions to conform to constitutional guaranties; 

(b) Opposition to S. 1694 and S 1832 giving Attorney General authority to 
deport aliens associated with or aiding groups which he finds (without standards or 
hearings) are "subversive of 'Communist' controlled"; 

(c) Opposition to H. R. 1002 to require labeUng, as issued by a "Communist-front 
organization," of anything mailed by a group which engages in activity which it is 
reasonable to believe is intended to further the objective of establishing here a 
Communist government or economic system, or if the group is "under Communist 
control or influence" 

The National Lawyers Guild has submitted a brief amicus curiae 
in an attempt to obtain a Supreme Court reversal of Maryland's Ober 
law which outlaws all organizations advocating the overthrow of the 
Government of the United States or of the State of Maryland (The 
Guild La\\^er, spring, 1950, p. 7). 

At its tenth national convention in New York in May 1950, the 
guild demanded a repeal of the "advocacy sections" of the Smith 
Act, under which the 11 top Communist officials in the United States 
were convicted (Daily Compass, May 8, 1950, p. 5). 



Not only has the guild opposed legislation directed against the 
Communist Party, but it has also fought every committee which has 
been effective in exposing Communist activity. 

The guild has opposed the Rapp-Coudert committee investigating 
subversive activities in the public school system of New York City, 
for example. It has also opposed the York committee investigating 
subversive activities among State employees of California; the Ellis 
committee investigating subversive activities in the New York Civil 
Service; and the Special Committee on Un-American Activities, 
predecessor of the present House Committee on Un-American 

Abolition of the present Committee on Un-American Activities is 
called for by the National Lawyers Guild. A resolution to this effect 
was adopted at the guild's ninth national convention held in Detroit, 
Mich., in February 1949. Typical of the guild propaganda regarding 
the Committee on Un-American Activities is the following statement 
in January 1948 by the then Guild President Robert Kenny: 

For years I have been saying that it was my opinion that the Un-American 
Activities Committee had no foundation in law, had no power to compel dis- 
closures, and that their procedures were improper. 

It would appear that the guild is not so much concerned over 
alleged violations of "democratic processes" as it is over the possible 
exposure of the Communist fifth column. 

In this connection, it might be recalled that in 1940 the Special 
Committee on Un-American Activities conducted investigations which 
led to the exposure of wholesale fraud and corruption in Communist 
Party election petitions in many States. More than 100 indictments 
and between 50 and 60 convictions resulted from this investigation. 
The National Lawyers Guild, however, addressed a communication 


to the Attorney General of the United States suggesting an injunction 
against the committee to restrain it from investigating the petition 

Such obstructionist tactics are a regular part of guild procedure 
whenever an investigation of communism is concerned. 


The National Lawyers Guild has faithfully followed the Communist 
Party line tlu'oughout its existence. 

In the mid-1930's when the Communist line called for collective 
security against the Fascist aggressors, the National Lawyers Guild 
dutifully called for the repeal of the existing Neutrality Act (Lawyers 
Guild Quarterly, June 1938, p. 255) and opposed shipments of ammu- 
nition to Germany (ibid., September 1938, p. 304). 

A crisis arose in this Communist front in February 1939 when non- 
Communist liberals who had been ensnared into the guild demanded 
that guild resolutions include condemnation of communism as well as 
nazism and fascism. To avoid a mass exodus of these liberals, the 
Communist behind-the-scenes leaders in the guild temporized and 
permitted a resolution to pass which opposed communism. Shortly 
thereafter, the Hitler-Stalin pact was signed and the conflict between 
the Communists and the non-Communists in the guild increased. 
The conflict was resolved in favor of the Communists when the June 
1940 guild convention resulted in the election of the fellow-traveler, 
Robert W. Kenny, as guild president, and numerous other officers of the 
same ilk. During this controversy it was announced for the first time, 
on June 6, 1940, that the executive board had adopted in December 1939 
a resolution against the Soviet attack on Finland. But the guild did 
not again buck the party line during the Stalin-Hitler pact. In fact, 
until the end of the pact in June 1941, the guild actually aided the 
Nazi-Communist alliance with thinly veiled attacks on United States 
legislation dealing with conscription and antisabotage measures. 
' ^ Wlien the crisis in the National Lawyers Guild was resolved during 
the Stahn-Hitler pact in favor of the Communists in the guild, non- 
Communists resigned en masse. In many instances, these non- 
Communists publicly repudiated the guild as being a Communist 
organization. Typical of their comments are the following: 
I'-- From a letter of resignation of Nathan B. Margold, Solicitor for 
the Department of the Interior, dated May 29, 1940: 

In recent elections for delegates from the District of Columbia to the 1940 
convention of the National Lawyers Guild, a group of candidates stood on a plat- 
form of unequivocal opposition to nazism, communism, fascism, and other move- 
ments which similarly reject the principles of free press, free speech, freedom of 
assemblv, right of religious worship, and fair trials. These candidates understood, 
if elected as delegates'^ to cast their votes at the 1940 convention for national offi- 
cers of the guild who share their views. Of the 20 candidates who stood on this 
platform, 14 were defeated. 

A. A. Berle, Jr., Assistant Secretary of State, resigned with the 
following statement: 

The National Lawyers Guild was formed in the hope that expression might be 
given to the liberal sentiment in the American bar. 

It is now obvious that the present management of the guild is not prepared to 
take anv stand which conflicts with the Communist Party line. Under these 
circumstances, and in company, I think, with the most progressive lawyers, I have 
no further interest in it (Washington Times-Herald, June 5, 1940). 


Attorney General Robert H. Jackson had resigned the previous 
week. Charles Poletti, Lieutenant Governor of New York State, 
resigned because he understood some members of the guild were "more 
interested in communism than anything else" (New York Times, 
June 26, 1940, p. 14). 

Paul R. Hays, a prominent New York attorney, summarized the 
situation as follows in his letter of May 21, 1940, to Prof. Herman A. 
Gray, which was circularized among members of the New York 

My experience, and the experience of many others (including the present 
national and New York chapter presidents), who have been similarly active in 
the guild and other liberal organizations, has led us to the conclusion that the 
presence of Communists in policy-making positions in such organizations inevi- 
tably results in deflection of the organizations from the liberal ends which they 
were set up to achieve. This is true because Communists are devoted to achiev- 
ing the ends of another organization, whose purposes are illiberal and at variance 
with the purposes of such organizations as the guild. 

With Germany's attack on the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941, the 
Communist Party line changed immediately. The war ceased being 
imperialistic in the eyes of the Communists, and the National Lawyers 
Guild suddenly took a similar view of the situation. On October 4, 
1941, the guild adopted the following resolution: 

The National Lawyers Guild accordingly gives its unlimited support to all 
measures necessary to the defeat of Hitierism and to the present Roosevelt 
policy of "all out aid" to and full collaboration with Great Britain, the Soveit 
Union, China, and other nations resisting Fascist aggression and to all further 
steps necessary for the military defeat of Hitierism (Lawyers Guild Review, 
October 1941). 

This meeting also urged the repeal of the Neutrality Act. 

The end of World War II introduced a new Communist Party line 
which is one of extreme hostility to the United States Government 
and all of its defense efforts against the postwar aggressions of the 
Soviet Union. The present policy of the National Lawyers Guild 
coincides with this new line almost completely. The guild opposes 
our military training programs and other internal security measures, 
and it condemns the entire European recovery program and North 
Atlantic Pact which are Stalin's chief anathema on the European 
front. The guild views as "democracies" the new Communist - 
satellite governments in eastern Europe, and encourages the Com- 
munist revolutionary movements in Korea, Indonesia, and China. 
The guild is demanding United States Government recognition of the 
Red regime in China. All of these viewpoints are also foimd in the 
Daily Worker, official organ of the Communist Party in this country. 

There is some evidence to indicate, however, that in recent months 
a split may be again developing in the membership of the National 
Lawyers Guild. This time, in contrast to the crisis of 1940, the split 
is rather between those pro-Communists who support Stalin only, 
and those on the other hand who want to support Stalin and Tito 
and call for a united front between the two dictators. 

At the tenth national convention of the guild held in New York 
City in May 1950, a resolution was adopted reversing the action of two 
guild delegates who voted at Rome to expel the Yugoslav delegates 
from the International Association of Democratic Lawyers. The 
latter organization is an international Communist-front for lawyers, 


of which the National Lawyers Guild is an affiliate. The international 
group will be dealt with in a later section of this report. 

Apparently the guild conffict between Titoites and Stalinists is not 
too serious at the present time, for the Daily Worker, official organ of 
the Communist Party, continues to promote and publicize the National 
Lawyers Guild. The Daily Worker attributed the guild's pro-Tito 
resolution to "O. John Rogge, who is admittedly on the payroll of the 
Tito regime" and gave this warning to the guild: 

If the progressive attorneys who courageously challenged the cold-war black- 
out of civil liberty here will get the facts on the Tito conspiracy, they will have no 
difficulty seeing that in falling for the Tito bait they fell for bait planted by the 
reactionary forces they are opposing (Daily Worker, May 11, 1950, p. 7). 

Included in the appendix to this report will be found an exhaustive 
analysis of propaganda issued by the National Lawyers Guild and 
that issued on the same subject by the Communist Party. This 
analysis shows that the guild and the Communist Party have taken 
the same and sometimes simultaneous stand on a host of important 
issues and should resolve any doubts regarding the fealty of the guild 
for the lino of the party. 

Another early front for lawyers was the International Juridical 
Association. • This was formed in 1931 and its members were closely 
interlocked with the International Labor Defense as well as the 
National Lawyers Guild. Among its promment members was Alger 


In 1922, the Communist International established the International 
Red Aid with the idea that it would have sections in various countries 
of the world. The purpose of such organizations in the language of 
the Communist International was — 

to render material and moral aid to the imprisoned victims of capitalism * * * 
(Resolutions and Theses of the Fourth Congress of the Communist International, 
published for the Communist International by the Communist Party of Great 
Britain, p. 87). 

In plain language, this meant that the Communists wanted to provide 
an agency which would protect their subversive agents whenever they 
ran into difficulties with the law of the various countries in which 
they were operating. 

An American section of the International Red Aid was established 
in 1925 and it was Imown here as the International Labor Defense. 
The International Labor Defense continued to function until 1946, 
when it merged into a new subversive organization known as the Civil 
Rights Congress. The International Juridical Association cooperated 
closely with the International Labor Defense, 

The following leaders of the National Lawyers Guild have been 
actively associated with both the International Labor Defense and 
the International Juridical Association: Joseph R. Brodsky (deceased ), 
a charter member of the Communist Party; David J. Bentall, Osmond 
K. Fraenkel, Walter Gellhorn, Herman A. Gray, Abraham J. Isserman, 
Paul J. Kern, Carol Weiss King, Edward Lamb, Louis F. McCabe, 
and Maurice Sugar. 

The International Juridical Association actively defended Com- 
munists and consistently followed the Communist Party line. The 
Special Committee on Un-American Activities cited the organization 
as a front in a report dated March 29, 1944. 


At the time of its inception, Isadore Polier was executive director, 
Carol King was secretary, and Joseph Kover editor of the International 
Juridical Association's monthly bulletin. An examination of the 
bulletin reveals consistent support of Communist legal cases during its 
entire career. 

In fact, the New York City Council Committee Investigating the 
Municipal Civil Service Committee in 1940 and 1941 declared: 

The bulletins of the International Juridical Association from its very inception 
show that it is devoted to the defense of the Communist Party, Communists, and 
radical agitators and that it is not limited merely to legal research but to sharp 
criticism of existing governmental agencies and defense of subversive groups. 

The International Juridical Association quietly disappearedfrom 
the American scene in the early 1940's. 

In 1942, the IJA Monthly Bulletin, a publication of the Interna- 
tional Juridical Association, was combined with the Lawyers Guild 
Review, an official organ of the National Lawyers Guild. The Decem- 
ber 1942 issue of the IJA Monthly Bulletin, in announcing the merger, 
indicated that the opportunity for joining forces with the National 
Lawyers Guild would "greatly widen the area of our influence." 
It was also announced that writers for the IJA Monthly Bulletin 
who remained available would go to the board of editors of the La\\'yers 
Guild Review and take primary responsibility for the material in the 
IJA section of the Review. 


The current international Communist front for attorneys is known 
as the International Association of Democratic Lawyers. This 
organization is sometimes referred to as the International Association 
of Democratic Jurists. 

The idea for the International Association of Democratic Lawyers 
was conceived during the Nuremberg trials as a threat to aU those 
considered as "war criminals" by Soviet militarists. The first congress 
met in October 1946 with some 15 countries represented. 

The National Lawyers Guild immediately affiliated with the new 
international front and sent representatives to the first congress in 

Communist leaders in the United States, recently convicted on 
conspiracy to advocate overthrow of the Government by force and 
violence, are being vigorously defended by the International Associa- 
tion of Democratic Lawyers. 

At the close of its third congress, held in Prague, Czechoslovakia, 
in September 1948, the International Association of Democratic 
Lawyers voted to send 25 attorneys to observe the trial of the afore- 
mentioned Communist leaders in New York. This proposal was 
made by Martin Popper, American representative. A resolution 
was also unanimously adopted expressing "grave concern over the 
indictment of the American Communist leaders in New York." 

The fourth congress of the International Association of Democratic 
Lawyers met in Rome in October-November 1949, with 30 affihate 
national sections. According to the autumn 1949 issue of The Guild 
Lawyer, quarterly pubhcation of the National Lawyers Guild, 
Executive Secretary Robert J. Silberstein, and William L. Standard, 
a member of the guild's national executive board, were sent as guild 
representatives to the fourth congress. 


The following national sections were represented in the congress 
by their delegations: Albania, Argentina, Austria, French Black 
Africa, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Egypt, France, Germany, 
Great Britain, Holland, Hungary, Italy, Iraq, Iran, Luxemburg, 
Poland, Rumania, Republican Spain, Soviet Union, Switzerland, 
Syria, Tunisia, and the U. S. A. The theme of the fourth congress 
was "law in the service of peace," in line with the current "peace 
offensive" of the international Communist apparatus. 

The following were among the resolutions which were adopted: 

(1) The Resolution on the Necessity of Respect for International 
Agreements expressed the view that lawyers have the duty to condemn 
actions which violate international engagements and especially when 
their own governments are involved. The resolution offered no 
criticism of Soviet policy but insisted that the North Atlantic Pact, 
which is supported by the United States, is irreconcilable with the 
Charter of the United Nations. 

(2) Resolution asserting that the prosecution of the leaders of the 
Communist Party in the U. S. A. is in violation of articles 19 and 20 
of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of the United Nations. 
An appeal along this line was then made to UN Secretary General 
Trygve Lie. 

(3) Resolution protesting strongly the prison sentences for contempt 
meted out to the attorneys for the Communist leaders in the United 

(4) Clearly intended as a measure of support for Communist insur- 
rections in colonial areas, the Resolution on Dependent Countries 
declared that the actual independence of these countries can only be 
achieved by national liberation struggle in alliance with the people of 
the exploiting country and the progressives of all countries. In Com- 
munist jargon aU efforts to subvert democratic countries are referred 
to as "liberation struggles." Russia is always the liberator while the 
U. S. A. is considered the exploiter. The resolution intended to en- 
courage rebellion in the home country is support of Communist up- 
risings. The meeting also created a permanent Commission on the 
Colonial, Semicolonial, and Dependent Countries. 

Commenting on the afore-mentioned convention, The Guild Lawyer 
of Autumn 1949 stated that the convention "marked a significant 
change in the strength and influence of the progressive lawyers of the 

Reflecting the current line of Moscow and the Cominform in its 
dispute with Marshal Tito, the Association of Democratic Lawyers 
voted to expel the Yugoslavian delegates. This proposal was sup- 
ported by Robert J. Silberstein, American delegate. 

The proceedings of the Association of Democratic Lawyers were 
considered of sufficient importance to warrant a report by Soviet 
Delegate Kirgin in May 1949 before the Soviet Society for Cultural 
Relations with Foreign Countries, the Soviet equivalent of the Nazis 
League for Germandom in Foreign Countries. This was made the 
subject of a Moscow broadcast on May 11, 1949. In conformance 
with the current Soviet "peace offensive," Kirgin urged democratic 
lawyers to intensify their fight against war propaganda. He stated 
that upon the Soviet delegate's initiative, a resolution was passed by 
the AODL to identify war criminals and publish their names. The 
organization has not as yet published the names of those responsible 
for the assault upon the peaceful South Korean Republic. 


It was well known that the drive of the World Peace Congress for 
endorsement of the so-called Stockholm Appeal and for interference 
with shipments of material sent by the United States in support of the 
Atlantic Defense Pact is the main present objective of international 
communism. The following excerpt from the Moscow Home Service 
Broadcast of May 21, 1950, therefore demonstrates how the Inter- 
national Association for Democratic Lawyers functions on an interna- 
tional scale to protect the Communist sabotage and espionage appara- 
tus, just as the National Lawyers Guild functions on a national scale: 

Among the organizations who have sided with the Stockholm declaration during 
the last week are the International Association of Democratic Lawyers and others. 
The International Association of Democratic Lawyers has also addressed dockers 
and railwaymen refusing to transport war material in a declaration in which they 
state that "they consider their actions are well-founded from a legal and juridical 
point of view because their actions are aimed at the prevention of war crimes. 

It should be remembered that the National Lawyers Guild, as a 
subordinate of the International Association of Democratic Lawyers, 
is in duty bound to comply with this directive in oiu- own country. 

At the previous Prague Congress in 1948, the International Associa- 
tion of Democratic Lawyers officially solidarized itself with the Wroclaw 
Congress of Intellectuals, attended by a number of leading American 
Communists, which devoted itself primarily to assailing the foreign 
policies of the United States and extolling the "peace policies" of the 
Soviet Union. 

According to the Daily Worker of October 19, 1949, page 10, the 
Fourth Congress of Democratic Lawyers held in Prague went even 
further in its service to international communism. Welcomed by 
Klement Gottwald, Communist President of Czechoslovakia, it worked 
out a "people's law code," intended as a guide for Communist dictator- 
ships. In concluding the session, Dr. Nordman compared the admin- 
istration of justice in Communist Czechoslovakia with that of the 
western democracies. 

"The American Constitution," remarked Nordman, "particularly the first 
amendment, guarantees freedom of thought, but we can see in the trial of the 
12 Communists in New York that they are being prosecuted only for their 
thoughts, only because they are Marxists and the jury is selected not democrat- 
ically * * *." 

Incidentally, Czechoslovakia has been the scene of a number of 
recent Communist purge trials in which the right to trial by jury and 
accepted juridical practices were ruthlessly violated, without protest 
from the Association of Democratic Lawyers for the National Lawyers 

The headquarters of the International Association of Democratic 
Lawyers is at 19 Quai d'Orleans in Paris, France. The president of the 
organization at the time of its 1949 convention was D. N. Pritt, K. C, 
a British lawyer prominent in the defense of Communist causes. Its 
general secretary is Joe Nordman, who recently defended the French 
pro-Communist publication, Les Lettres Frangaise. 


The files of the Committee on Un-American Activities show that the 
dominant forces in the National Lawyers Guild have been composed 
of kno-\vn Communists and fellow travelers. 

H. Rept. 3123, 81-2 8 


The committee notes, for example, that John Abt, Lee Pressman, 
and Nathan Witt were associated with the National La^vyers Guild 
from its inception, and have held positions on the guild's executive 
board or on its various committees. Abt, Pressman, and Witt have 
been identified as Communist members of an underground group 
established by the Communist Party for the purpose of infiltrating 
Federal Government agencies. This identification was made by 
Whittaker Chambers, confessed former courier for Communist espion- 
age agents. The three indviduals so accused subsequently refused 
to submit to congressional inquiry regarding their Communist activ- 
ities on grounds of self-incrimination. 

On August 28, 1950, Lee Pressman again appeared before the com- 
mittee. This time, he answered questions propounded to him by the 
committee. In the course of the questioning, Pressman admitted his 
membership in a Communist group in Washington, D. C, during the 
years 1934 and 1935. He also identified Nathan Witt and John Abt 
as members of this Communist group. On September 1, 1950, Nathan 
Witt and John Abt again appeared before the committee and refused 
to answer all inquiries regarding theii' Communist activities on the 
ground of self-incrimination. 

Another initial memljer of the National Lawyers Guild was Charles 
Recht, who at the same time was attorney for the Soviet Embassy 
in the United States. Still another charter member was Joseph R. 
Brodsky, general counsel and charter member of the Communist 
Party, now deceased. The National Lawyers Guild, at its 1948 
national convention, unanimously adopted a special resolution regard- 
ing the death of Mr. Brodsky which stated: 

His death is an inestimable loss to the profession and to the National Lawyers 
Guild of which he was a charter member. 

Martin Popper, one of the 1949 vice presidents of the guild whom 
the Daily Worker of June 27, 1943, credits with being a "founder" of 
the guild, is a faithful Communist Party liner. His many other 
Communist-front connections include Civil Rights Congress, American 
Committee for Protection of Foreign Born, Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee 
Committee, Committee for a Democratic Far Eastern Policy, Ameri- 
can Committee for Spanish Freedom, Emergency Peace Mobilization, 
National Federation for Constitutional Liberties, National Council 
of the Arts, Sciences, and Professions, National Negro Congress, 
Southern Conference for Human Welfare. Popper recently repre- 
sented the Chinese Communist government. 

Thomas I. Emerson, a law professor at Yale University, was elected 
president of the National Lawyers Guild at its national convention in 
New York City in May 1950. Mr. Emerson has been associated with 
the guild from its very begmning, and served on the guild's executive 
board during its first year, 1937. The records of the Committee on 
Un-American Activities show that Mr. Emerson has an unusual affinity 
for Communist-front organizations and that in addition to the National 
Lawyers Guild he has associated himself with such groups as Civil 
Rights Congress, Jefferson School of Social Science, Southern Con- 
ference for Human Welfare, National Council of the Arts, Sciences, 
and Professions. He has further associated himself with the Com- 
munist-blessed Progressive Citizens of America and with the Com- 
munist-dominated United Public Workers of America. 

The present executive secretary of the National Lawyers Guild is 
Robert J. SUberstein, who has held that same position for many years. 


Mr. Silberstein's connections with the guild date from its earhest days. 
The files of the committee disclose that Mr. Silberstein is the signer 
of a public statement defending the Communist Party and that he has 
associated with such subversive organizations as the International 
Workers Order, Committee for Citizenship Rights, Lawyers Com- 
mittee on American Relations with Spain, and Progressive Committee 
to Rebuild the American Labor Party. 

Clifford J. Durr, 1949 head of the guild, who has appeared before 
the Committee on Un-American Activities representing clients who 
declined to answer questions as to Communist affiliations on the 
gromids of self-incrimination, in August of 1948 attended the World 
Congress of Intellectuals for Peace behind the u-on curtain, at Wro- 
claw, Poland. In May of 1948, Duir, in a speech before the Federa- 
tion of American Scientists, charged that United States scientists are 
forced to "work in an atmosphere of corrosive fear." This was prior 
to the disclosure regarding the spying of the British atom spy, Klaus 

Durr sponsored a committee to defeat the AIundt-Ferguson Com- 
munist control bill. He charges that the "loyahy program is above 
the Constitution." 

Durr presently serves as a vice president of the guild. 

The 1950 vice presidents of the National Lawyers Guild include 
the followmg other individuals with significant records of associations 
with Communist enterprises: 

Osmond Fraenkel: Associated with Consumers National Federation, 
American Labor Party, National Committee for the Defense of 
Political Prisoners, American Student Union, Consumers Union, 
American League Against War and Fascism, New York Tom Mooney 
Committee, National Emergency Conference for Democratic Rights, 
International Juridical Association, National Committee for People's 
Rights, Medical Bureau and North American Committee To Aid 
Spanish Democracy, Greater New York Emergency Conference on 
Inalienable Rights, Film Audiences for Democracy, Films for Democ- 
racy, Coordinating Committee To Lift the Embargo, Citizens Com- 
mittee To Free Earl Browder, School for Democrac}^. 

Louis F. McCahe: Associated with Philadelphia School of Social 
Science and Art, National Federation for Constitutional Liberties, 
Civil Rights Congress, American League for Peace and Democracy, 
Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee, North American Committee 
To Aid Spanish Democracy, National Council of the Arts, Sciences 
and Professions, American Committee for Protection of Foreign Born, 
International Labor Defense, National Emergency Conference for 
Democratic Rights, International Juridical Association, American 
Student Union. 

Bartley C. Crum: Associated with California Labor School, National 
Committee To Win the Peace, National Federation for Constitutional 
Liberties, Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade, Joint Anti- 
Fascist Refugee Committee, American-Russian Institute, American 
Slav Congress, American Youth for Democracy, American Committee 
for Spanish Freedom. 

Richard Gladstein: Associated with the Civil Rights Congress. Mr. 
Gladstein sent Labor Day greetings to the People's Daily World, 
west coast organ of the Communist Party, in 1947, and sent Alay Day 
greetings to the same subversive newspaper in the present year. 
Mr. Gladstein was one of the attorneys who were sentenced to jail 



for contempt of court as a result of their abusive attitudes while 
defending the 11 Communist leaders recently convicted in New York. 

(As of December 1949) 

CliflFord J. Durr, Washington, D. C. 

Executive secretary 
Robert J. Silberstein, Washington, D. C. 

Nathan B. Kogan, New York City 

Vice 'presidents 

Bartley C. Crum, San Francisco 

Prof. Thomas I. Emerson, Yale Law 

Osmond K. Fraenke], New York City 
Mitchell Franklin, New Orleans 
Elmer Gertz, Chicago 
Charles H. Houston, Washington, D. C. 

O. John Rogge, New York City 
Hon. Ira W. Jayne, Detroit, presiding 

judge. Circuit Court, Wayne Countv, 

Daniel G. Marshall, Los Angeles 
Louis F. McCabe, Philadelphia 
Martin Popper, New York City 

Executive board members 


I. Duke Avnet 

Donald Murray 
Cedar Rapids, Iowa: Allan Heald 

Paul G. Annes 

Earl B. Dickerson 

Irving H. Flamm 

Solomon Jesmer 

Sidney A. Jones, Jr. 

John Ligtenberg 

David B. Rothstein 

George L. Siegel 

Euclid L. Tavlor 

Richard F. Watt 

Eugene Cotton 

Nelson Willia 

Harry L. Diehl 
Cleveland : 

Hon. Lewis Drucker 

Elsie Tarcai 

Herschel G. Holland 

Charles M. Goodwin 

Allen Madorski 
Denver: Samuel D. Menin 
Detroit : 

Alan N. Brown 

Alvin Davenport 

James Montante 

Executive board members — Continued 

Detroit^ — Continued 

Walter M. Nelson 

Patrick S. Nertney 

Hon. Patrick H. O'Brien 

Nedwin L. Smokier 

Maurice Sugar 

Hon. Henrv S. Sweeney 

G. Leslie Field 
Los Angeles-Hollywood: 

Robert W. Kenny 

Clore Warne 

John T. McTernan 

George SlafF 
Hope, Ark.: George Patrick Casey 
Houston, Tex.: Herman Wright 
Lima, Ohio: Elmer McClain 
New York City: 

Benjamin Algase 

Leonard B. Boudin 

Louis Boudin 

Joseph H. Crown 

Hon. Hubert T. Delaney 

Bernard D. Fischman 

Albert C. Gilbert 

Carol King 

Leo J. Linder 

Thurgood Marshall 

Paul O'Dwyer 

Milton Paulson 

Marian Wynn Perry 

Lee Pressman 

Paul L. Ross 

Harry Sacher 

Hon. Nathan R. Sobel 

William L. Standard 

Abraham Unger 

Benedict WoLf 

Arthur G. Silverman 
Philadelphia: Saul C. Waldbaum 
Pittsburgh: Hyman Schlesinger 
St. Louis: Victor B. Harris 
San Francisco: 

J. Bruce Fratis 

George G. Olshausen 
Seattle: John Caughlan 
Washington, D. C: 

George M. Johnson 

Donald M. Murtha 

David Rein 

Herbert S. Thatcher 

Belford V. Lawson, Jr. 

Boston: Arthur L. Brown 

Youngstown, Ohio: John F, Kicak 

Miami: Harold Tannen 

Student division: 

Martin Tucker, Cambridge 
Robert Silverstein, Chicago 
Samuel Rosenberg, New York City 



(As of May 1950) 

Thomas I. Emerson, Yale University 

Executive secretary 
Robert J. Silberstein, Washington, D. C, 

Nathan B. Kogan, New York 

T- ice presidents 

Chfford J. Durr, Washington, D. C. 
Osmond Fraenkel, New York City 
Bartley Crum, San Francisco 
Louis McCabe, Philadelphia 
Richard Gladstein, San Francisco 
Earl B. Dickerson, Chicago 
Victor B. Harris, St. Louis 
George Slaff , Los Angeles 
Henry Weihofen, New Mexico 
Martin Popper, New York City 
Hon. Ira W. Jayne, Detroit 
Elmer Gertz, Chicago 
Mitchell Franklin, New Orleans 

0. John Rogge, New York City 

Executive board 

Benjamin Algase, New York City 
Paul G. Annes, Chicago 

1. Duke Avnet, Baltimore 
Leonard B. Boudin, New York City 
Alan Brown, Detroit 

George Patrick Casey, Arkansas 
John Caughlin, Seattle 
Eugene Cotton, Chicago 
Joseph H. Crown, New York City 
Elvin A. Davenport, Detroit 
Hon. Hubert D. Delany, New York City 
Earl B. Dickerson, Chicago 
Harry Diehl, Gibson City, 111. 
Hon. Lewis Druckner, Cleveland 
G. Leslie Field, Detroit 
Bernard D. Fischman, New York City 
Irving H. Flamm, Chicago 
J. Bruce Fratis, San Francisco 
Albert C. Gilbert, New York City 
Charles M. Goodwin, Cleveland 
Victor B. Harris, St. Louis 
Allen Heald, Chicago 
Charles H. Houston, Washington, D. C. 

Executive board — Continued 

Solomon Jesmer, Chicago 

Sidney A. Jones, Jr., Chicago 

Robert W. Kenny, Los Angeles 

John F. Kicak, Youngstown, Ohio 

Carol King, New York City 

Belford V. Lawson, Washington, D. C. 

John Lightenberg, Chicago 

Leo J. Linder, New York City 

Elmer McClain, Lima, Ohio 

John T. McTernan, Los Angeles 

Allan Madorski, Cleveland 

Samuel D. Menin, Detroit 

James Montante, Detroit 

Donald Murray, Baltimore 

Donald M. Murtha, Washington, D. C. 

Walter M. Nelson, Detroit 

Patrick S. Nerthney, Detroit 

Patrick H. O'Brien, Detroit 

Paul O'Dwyer, New York City 

Geo. H. Olshausen, San Francisco 

Milton Paulson, New York City 

Marion Wynn Perry, New York City 

Lee Pressman, New York City 

David Rein, Washington, D. C. 

Samuel Rosenberg, New York City 

Paul L. Ross, New York City 

David B. Rothstein, Chicago 

Harry Sacher, New York City 

Hyman Schlesinger, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

George L. Siegel, Chicago 

Arthur G. Silverman, New York City 

Robert Silverstein, Madison, Wis. 

George Slaff, Los Angeles 

Hon. Nathan R. Sobel, New York City 

William L. Standard, New York City 

Nedwin L. Smokier, Detroit 

Maurice Sugar, Detroit 

Hon. Henry S. Sweeney, Detroit 

Harold Tannen, Miami 

Elsie Tarcai, Cleveland 

Euclid L. Taylor, Chicago 

Herbert S. Thatcher, Washington, D. C. 

Abraham Unger, New York City 

Morris Wainger, New York City 

Saul C. Waldblum, Philadelphia 

Clore Warne, Los Angeles 

Richard F. Watt, Chicago 

Nelson Willis, Chicago 

Benedict Wolf, New York City 

Herman Wright, Houston, Tex, 



(as of July 1950) 

President, Harry Lamberton 

Vice -president, Belford V. Lawson, Jr. 
Executive secretary, David Rein 
Recording secretary, Selma Salmons 
Treasurer, Charlotte A. Hankin 
Board of directors: Jack Blume 

James A. Cobb 

Arthur Christopher, Jr.' 

Milton Freeman 

Samuel Jaffe 

Howard Jenkins 

Samuel Levine 

Harry N. Rosenfeld ^ 

Herbert S. Thatcher ^ 

Ruth Weyand 

Donald M. Murtha * 


Headquarters of the National Lawyers Guild are located at 902 
Twentieth Street NW., Washington, D. C. 

The National Lawyers Guild claimed a membership of 3,891 indi- 
viduals as of June 1, 1950. Its chapters number 14 and are located 
in the following cities: Baltimore, Boston, Albany, Troy, Schenectady, 
Chicago, Cleveland, Detroit, Washington, D. C, Hollywood, Los 
Angeles, New York City, Philadelphia, and San Francisco. For the 
purpose of comparison, the Journal of the American Bar Association 
in 1948 estimated. the total number of attorneys in the United States 
at 180,000. To carry the comparison still further, the American Bar 
Association reported its own membership to be 28,400 in 1937 and 
42,000 in 1949, according to the World Almanac. 

Since 1946, the National Lawyers Guild has maintained a student 
division to permit law students to become members of the guild. 
The 3,891 total guild membership figure as of June 1, 1950, includes 
702 individuals who are listed as members of the guild's student 
division. The guild lists the locations of its student divisions as 
follows: University of Michigan, University of California at San 
Francisco, University of Southern California (Boalt Hall), University 
of Chicago, Harvard University, New York University, Columbia 
University, Brooklyn Law School, Yale University, University of 
Washington at Seattle, Wayne University, Washington, D. C. (sic). 

Dues paid by its members provides the National Lawyers Guild 
with some of its funds. Another source is contributions from inter- 
ested individuals and organizations. 

The House Committee on Un-American Activities, in a report dated 
June 7, 1946, referred to its investigation of organizations which 
financed communistic and subversive causes in the United States. 
The committee named the Sound View Foundation, Inc., of New 
York as a typical example. The National Lawyers Guild received 

1 Dropped membership through nonpayment of dues, April 1049, and refused nomination to board of 

2 Dropped membership through nonpayment of dues, April 1949, and refused nomination to board of 

3 Dropped membership through nonpayment of dues, April 1949, and has not attended a guild meet- 
ing for over three years. 

■• Resigned. 


$700 from the now-defunct Sound View Foundation, according to the 

In 1949, the Communist-dominated International Fur and Leather 
Workers Union contributed $3,000 to the National Lawyers Guild. 
In 1947 and again in 1948, the Communist-dominated United Electri- 
cal, Radio and Machine Workers Union contributed $750 to the 
National Lawyers Guild. 

Another contributor to the National Lawyers Guild was the Robert 
Marshall Foundation of New York City, which in 1947 contributed 
$2,000. This foundation was described in the March 29, 1944, report 
of the Special Committee on Un-American Activities as "one of the 
principal sources for the money with which to finance the Communist 
Party's fronts generally in recent years." 

Frederick Vanderbilt Field, whose adherence to Communist causes 
is well known, has also contributed money to the National Lawyers 

Over 40 employees of the Federal Government who are currently 
carried on the rolls of the National Lawyers Guild as members were 
contacted by the staff of the committee. The majority of those 
contacted have, in their opinions, ceased their membership through 
the nonpayment of dues, although only three had submitted formal 
letters of resignation. However, the National Lawyers Guild still 
considers these persons to be members. Two individuals carried as 
members of the board of directors of the Washington chapter of the 
National Lawyers Guild are still carried as such even though they 
refused the nomination to the board of directors and had stopped 
paying dues. One person carried as a member of the board had 
neither paid dues since April of 1949 nor attended a meeting in over 
3 years. 

Many persons interviewed, and these interviews were limited to 
present Government emploj^ees, stated that as a result of their mem- 
berships in the National Lawyers Guild they had been receiving 
literature from Communist-front organizations. 


The Committee on Un-American Activities recommends that the 
National Lawyers Guild be placed on the Department of Justice 
subversive list and that it be required to register as an agent of a 
foreign principal. 

It recommends further that members of the National Lawyers 
Guild be barred from Federal employment and that the American 
Bar Association consider the question of whether or not membership 
in the National Lawyers Guild, a subversive organization, is com- 

f)atible with admissibility to the American bar. It calls on decent 
awyers and those sincerely interested in the liberal principles of 
American justice to warn the younger members of the bar of the real 
nature of the guild, as an arm of the international Communist 



Through resolutions of its conventions, declarations of its national 
executive board, and statements of its officials, the National Lawyers 
Guild has expressed its position with regard to many foreign and 
domestic issues. Some high Hghts of these pronouncements are com- 
pared in the following pages with statements on the same issues as 
found in the Daily Worker, Daily Peoples World, New Masses, The 
Communist, and Political Affaii's. The first four publications men- 
tioned were identified as Communist in the Special Committee on 
Un-American Activities, United States House of Representatives, 
report dated March 29, 1944, while the last was similarly described 
in the sanie committee's Report No. 1920 dated May 11, 1948, pages 
5 and 6. 

The only striking example of conflict with the Communist Party 
line occurred when the guild's executive board denounced the Russian 
invasion of Finland in Decemberl939, when it still included a sizable 
number of non-Communists who have since resigned. This resolution 
was, however, not widely publicized. 

A. Domestic Issues 

1. Aliens 

(Explanatory Note. — Many members of the Communist Party, U. S. A., 
are aliens subject to deportation proceedings. In some cases Russia has refused 
to accept Communist deportees from the United States. The Hobbs bill (H. R. 
10) therefore provided for the internment of such aliens, just as was done with 
Nazi deportees during World War II.) 


Defeat the Bill for Concentration * * * The National Lawyers 

Camps * * * We are referring to Guild in convention assembled opposes 

the fact that the "Concentration Camp" passage of the Hobbs Concentration 

Bill introduced by Congressman Hobbs, Camp Bill, or any similar legislation 

of Alabama, has just been reported out of which would establish concentration 

Committee. camps in America (Lawyers Guild Re- 

* * * The reactionaries behind it view, vol. 1, No. 4, June 1941, p. 64). 
hope to sneak it through before the 

people have a chance to act. The Bill 
provides that all foreign-born non- 
citizens shall be imprisoned for life in 
concentration camps if they have no 
passports to the countries of their birth. 
Such persons will be seized without 
trial, and without any possibility of 
appeal to higher courts. 

* * * wrg ^Yia,t you wire your 
Congressman now, and urge him to vote 
"No" to the Hobbs Bill (Daily Worker, 
April 27, 1939, p. 1). 


H. Kept. 3123, 81-2- 



(Explanatory Note. — The Smith bill was adopted just prior to World War 
II as a necessary defense precaution and provided for the registration and finger- 
printing of aliens.) 


The Smith Bill — one of the most re- 
pressive of a long list of "antialien" 
measures now hanging fire in Con- 
gress — may come up any day. * * * 

This is an omnibus bill, combining all 
the vicious features of a number of 
measures, and a few of its own. It re- 
quires registration and fingerprinting of 
all aliens, a domestic passport system 
which, unquestionably would involve 
the whole population. At the same 
time, it makes it more difficult for the 
foreign-born to become citizens * * * 
{Daily Worker, May 29, 1939, p. 6). 

* * * The tory members of the 
Senate Committee on Immigration ap- 
proved a bill that violates the very 
fundamentals of the Declaration of In- 
dependence and of American democ- 

* * * In providing for the regis- 
tration of all aliens, the measure strikes 
a direct blow at the Bill of Rights. Let 
no one try pretend that such a measure 
is aimed at aliens alone. Its real pur- 
pose is to intimidate aliens and foreign- 
born citizens in order to weaken the 
unions and other democratic organiza- 
tions to which they belong. This is not 
an "antialien" bill. It is a sedition 
bill to undermine democracy. The 
measure is an opening wedge against 
the rights and liberties of all Americans 
{Sunday Worker, July 2, 1939, p. 6). 

Fifth column hysteria swept both 
houses of Congress today and included 
in its destructive sweep the civil liberties 
of the American people and the rights 
of organized labor as well as the welfare 
of the foreign born. 

Direct consequences of the President's 
national defense program included: 

(1) Passage of the LaFoUette oppres- 
sive Labor Practices Act. * * * 

(2) Unanimous approval by the Sen- 
ate Judiciary Committee of the Smith 
Omnibus Anti-Alien Bill. * * * 

(3) Approval by the House of the 
President's reorganization plan trans- 
ferring the Bureau of Immigration from 
the Department of Labor to the Depart- 
ment of Justice, thus subjecting the 
foreign born to persecution by J. Edgar 
Hoover's FBI * * * {Daily Worker, 
May 28, 1940, p, 1). 


At its 1940 convention the Guild op- 
posed all proposals to fingerprint or 
require identification cards of aliens 
inasmuch as such proposals were deemed 
discriminatory and necessarily "lead to 
the registration and fingerprinting of 
the entire population." {National Law- 
yers Guild Quarterly, vol. 3, No. 2, p. 
119, July 1940.) 

Guild opposed H. R. 5138, the Alien 
Registration Act, pointing out that the 
act not only provided for the registra- 
tion of aliens but contained a Federal 
Sedition law and a military disafi"ection 
law which it criticized as a violation of 
the First Amendment to the Federal 
Constitution {Lawyers Guild Review, 
October 1940, p. 591). 

The National Lawyers Guild * * * 
disapproves all proposals, whether fed- 
eral, state, or local, to register finger- 
print or require identification cards of 
all aliens, as such proposals are dis- 
criminating and must of necessity also 
lead to the registration and finger- 
printing of the entire population; * * * 
The impending transfer of the Immi- 
gration and Naturalization Service from 
the Labor Department to the Depart- 
ment of Justice; * * * {National 
Lawyers Guild Quarterly, vol. 3, No. 2, 
July 1940, p. 119). 



2. Bridges Case 

(Explanatory Note. — Harry Bridges, an alien member of the Communist 
Party, USA, has been the subject of deportation proceedings for a number of 
years. He has recently been convicted of perjury for denying his party member- 
ship in such proceedings.) 


Bridges, as it is well known by in- 
formed people, is not a Communist nor 
is it against the law to be a Communist. 
But if the shipowners can get away with 
the kind of frame-up they are perpe- 
trating against Bridges, what trade- 
union or liberal leader is safe? For it 
is progressive unionism and the New 
Deal which the shipowners are trying 
to destroy in this frame-up farce against 
Bridges (Daily Worker, July 28, 1939, 
p. 6). 

The victory which has been won by 
the unions and the people in the Harry 
Bridges case * * * is a bitter dis- 
appointment to the reactionaries {Daily 
Worker, January 2, 1940, p. 6). 

And so, after years of persecution 
and a man hunt of such proportions as 
this country has never witnessed, with 
months of coaching and preparation by 
the FBI, the Department of Justice of 
this great Nation could produce nothing 
more against Harry Bridges than the, 
at best, questionable words of two 
witnesses * * * (New Masses, June 
9, 1942, p. 12). 


H. R. 9766 ordering the deportation 
of Harry Bridges after he has been 
found not guilty of any conduct which 
would justify his deportation under 
laws applicable to all aliens would be a 
dangerous precedent for an objection- 
able practice * * * The National 
Lawyers Guild disapproves H. R. 9766 
as a contravention of the historical 
American opposition to anything in the 
nature of a Bill of Attainder expressly 
prohibited by the Federal Constitution 
(National Lawyers Guild 'Quarterly, voL 
3, No. 2, Julv 1949, p. 119). 

By letter dated June 28, 1940, to the 
Senate Committee on Immigration and 
Naturalization the Guild opposed H. R. 
9766, "a bill directing the Attorney 
General to deport Harry Renton Bridges 
forthwith to Australia." Described it 
as an "un-American proposal." 

Guild cited the action against Bridges 
as an attempt by "opponents of the 
labor movement * * * to thwart 
the development thereof by prosecuting 
its leaders." (Washington Evening Star, 
February 25, 1941). 

According to the New York Times, 
March 19, 1945, the Guild sent a legal 
memorandum and petition to the Presi- 
dent urging cancellation of deportation 
proceedings against Bridges. Stated: 
"If Harry Bridges, a well-loved leader 
of a strong American trade-union were 
permitted to suffer the punishment of 
exile from a land in which he had lived 
for almost 25 years * * * would 
not fair-minded men everywhere tend 
to suspect the good faith of our commit- 
ments and the sincerity of our program 
for a lasting peace"? (New York Times, 
March 19, 1945). 



3. Committees Investigating Communism 
house committee on un-american activities 


It is with real Hitler brazenness that 
Dies asks Congress for more funds — to 
be exact, for $150,000 — in order that his 
gang can help the Nazi bunds and the 
Wall Street Tories tear down American 
democracy. Every American should 
answer this insolence with an increasing 
stream of protests to his Congressman 
urging an end to the Dies outfit. Let 
Congress establish a committee to 
ferret out the un-American forces which 
Dies witch-hunters are hiding. (Edi- 
torial, Daily Worker, January 23, 1939, 
p. 6). 

Attention, AH Readers! 

Write your Congress today on dis- 
solving the Dies Committee * * * 
{National Issues, January 1939, p. 18, 
Published monthly by National Com- 
mittee, Communist Partv). 

The November 18, 1939, issue of the 
Daily Worker-, page 6, editorialized 
favorably on the Guild pamphlet and 

"Not another cent for Dies: This 
should be the thunderous demand of the 
American people upon the Januar.v 

Abolish the Un-American Dies and 
Smith Committees (Resolution Adopted 
by the National Committee of the Com- 
munist Party, U. S. A., February 1940, 
The Communist, March 1940, page 216). 

An end must be put to such instru- 
ments of fascism as the Dies Committee 
* * * (Manifesto of the National 
Committee, Communist Party, USA, 
adopted at its Plenary Meeting, June 
28-29, 1941, The Communist, August 
1941, p. 681). 

But why does the Congress of the 
United States continue to vote confi- 
dence in Mr. Dies, and provide him 


In January 1939, the New York City 
Chapter of the National Lawyers Guild 
sent a resolution to the New York State 
Assembly and the U. S. House of Repre- 
sentatives stating: 

"1. That we urge the resolution to 
continue the Dies Committee be dis- 
approved and that no further funds be 
appropriated to it, and 

"2. That we urge Congress to request 
the Department of Justice to carry on an 
investigation of un-American and sub- 
versive activities * * * 

"3. That we urge the legislature of 
the State of New York to memorialize 
the Congress of the United States to 
discharge the Dies Committee for the 
reasons hereinabove set forth" (Daily 
Worker, January 23, 1939, pp. 1 and 4). 

In November 1939, the San Francisco 
Chapter of the National Lawyers Guild 
released a pamphlet entitled "In the 
Court of Public Opinion, Indictment, 
People of the United States of America 
vs. the Dies Committee." This pam- 
phlet contained the statement: "Propa- 
ganda groups such as the Dies Com- 
mittee must be condemned by the Am- 
erican people, if American democracy 
and the Bill of Rights are to be main- 
tained" {Daily Worker, November 15, 
1939, p. 1). 

Now, Therefore, Belt Resolved: That 
the House of Representatives be urged 
to deny the request of Chairman Dies 
for an additional one hundred thousand 
dollars as a supplemental appropriation 
for the Dies Committee to investigate 
un-American activities. 

That the House of Representatives be 
urged to discontinue and disband the 
Dies Committee except for the sub- 
mission of a report on its activities and 
that the Dies Committee be directed 
forthwith to turn over to the Depart- 
ment of Justice or other appropriate 
governmental agencies any information 
which might be of aid to such govern- 
mental agencies in the performance of 
their duties (Fourth Annual Convention, 
National Lawyers Guild, May 29- June 
2 1940, National Laivyers Guild Ouar- 
terly, vol. 3, No. 2, July 1940, p. 121). 

* * * the National I>awyers 
Guild in convention assembled urges 
* * * the abolition of the Dies 
Committee * * * (Resolution, 
Fifth National Convention, National 
Lawyers Guild, May-June 1941, 
Lawyers Guild Review, vol. I No. 4, 
June 1941, p. 67). ^^^ ^^ 

By letter of February 7, 1942, the 
New York City Chapter of the Guild 




with unlimited public funds with which 
to carry on his work which "helps 
Hitler's cause, not ours"? (Victory and 
After, Earl Browder, p. 69, International 
Pubhshers, Inc., 1942). 

Eventual readers of the history of 
this war will be amazed at the extent 
and with what insolence this protection 
of the enemies within our gates had been 
carried on by members of Congress. 
The worst thing done in this respect by 
Congress (so far at least) has been the 
recommissioning of the Dies Committee 
and voting it $75,000 with which to 
continue its subversive work (The 
Reactionary Offensive and the War, 
William Z. Foster, The Communist, 
April 1943, p. 306). 

The American people must therefore 
conclude that while the United States 
can easily dispense with the House 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 
it cannot afford to do without the Am- 
erican Communist Party (America 
Needs the Communist Party, Speech 
of Eugene Dennis at Madison Square 
Garden, New York, September 18, 1945, 
Political Affairs, October 1945, p. 875). 

Civil Rights: 

* * * End the witch hunts, loy- 
alty orders and phony spy scares. 
Abolish the Un-American Committee 
(Political Affairs, September 1948, p. 
941 particle: "1948 Election Platform of 
the Communist Party"). 


sent to each member of the U. S. 
House of Representatives a report of 
the record of the Dies Committee in 
the four years of its life. The letter 

"Wherefore, we respectfully submit 
that the resolution to continue the Dies 
Committee and to appropriate addi- 
tional funds thereto be disapproved" 
(Daily Worker, February 10, 1942, p. 4). 

By letter of February 15, 1942, over 
the signature of Martin Popper, execu- 
tive secretary, the Guild criticized 
Representative Dies to President Roose- 
velt and said: 

"We pledge to continue our efforts to 
convince Congress that the Dies Com- 
mittee must be discontinued since it 
represents an impediment and obstacle 
to American victory" (Daily Worker, 
February 16, 1942, p. 4). 

In a letter to U. S. Representative 
Frank Hook, Michigan, the Detroit 
Chapter of the Guild urged him to 
vote down any further appropriation 
for the Dies Committee, declaring it 
stands exposed "as a home-made pat- 
tern of Hitler's international anti- 
Comintern technique" (Daily Worker, 
February 28, 1942, p. 3). 

At every stage of its career, and espe- 
cially now in wartime, the Dies Com- 
mittee has been a hindrance to the 
honest aspirations of the American 
people. In the past, he has repeatedly 
come before Congress and promised to 
redeem his errors, lie has never once 
fulfilled those promises. There is no 
reason for risking the public money by 
trusting a broken promise again re- 
peated (The Dies Committee, Lawyers 
Guild Review, vol. Ill, No. 1, January- 
February 1943, p. 28). 

The Guild was listed as one of twenty 
groups which had joined together and 
pledged a "fight to the finish campaign 
to abolish the Un-American House Com- 
mittee" (Daily Worker, October 24, 

The Guild was one of several organ- 
izations announcing a nation-wide cam- 
paign to abolish the Rankin Un-Ameri- 
can Activities Committee. The groups' 
first objective was the completion of 
signature drives for a petition to abolish 
the Committee (Daily Worker, Decem- 
ber 9, 1945). 

This Committee, for nine long years 
has distinguished itself by its utter dis- 
regard of the constitutional rights of 
minorities with whose ideas it disagrees, 
* * * The Guild urges the House of 
Representatives to abolish the House 
Committee forthwith (Guild Resolution, 
February 23, 1948, Lawyers Guild Re- 
view, vol. VIII, No. 1, January-Febru- 
ary 1948, p. 319). 




The drive against witch hunting must 
take the form of outright abohtion of 
the Un-American Activities Committee. 
* * * (Popular Mandate vs. Monop- 
oly Policy in the New Congress, Max 
Gordon, Political Affairs, January 1949, 
p. 82). 


On December 13, 1948, the Guild sent 
a statement to all House Members de- 
manding abolition of the House Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities. The 
statement alleged that the "existence 
and activities of such a committee are 
inherently inimical to the most funda- 
mental rights guaranteed by the Con- 
stitution" (Daily Worker, December 13, 
1948, p. 2, Washington Star, December 
13, 1948). 

The House Committee on Un-Ameri- 
can Activities * * * should be 
abolished (Resolution of the National 
Guild Convention, February 23, 1949, 
Lawyers Gxiild Review, vol. IX, No. 1, 
Winter 1949, p. 51). 


(Explanatory Note. — The Rapp-Coudert Committee was active in 1940 in 
investigating Communist activity in the public school system of New York City.) 


Contempt proceedings by the Rapp- 
Coudert Committee against five mem- 
bers of the Brooklyn College faculty 
are a striking exposure of the fascist 
character of the committee. 

The charge is that the teachers 
refused to testify before the Committee. 
But actually, they justifiably refused 
to attend a secret one-man hearing in 
which they would be denied benefit of 
counsel * * * {Daily Worker, De- 
cember 23, 1940, p. 6, editorial). 

The Rapp-Coudert Committee, which 
is taking the lead in the fight to destroy 
public education in New York State, is 
this week conducting "little Dies" hear- 
ings in New York City against the 
Teachers Union and its membership. 

The Rapp-Coudert Committee and 
the State Legislature have been carry- 
ing the banners of the Middle Ages 
particularly high during the past few 
months. The Committee was created 
to "investigate, study and review State 
aid, administration, conduct, methods, 
subject matter and subversive activities 
in the public schools * * * and 
every other matter deemed relevant." 

What the Committee deemed relevant 
was to instigate an attack of unprece- 
dented proportions against progressive 
education and against the Teachers 
Union, organization of progressive- 
minded men and women in the New 
York's school system {Sunday Worker, 
December 1, 1940, p. 5, article by Beth 
McHenry entitled "Coudert Waves 
Middle Age Banner in School Attack"). 


* * * The National Lawyers 
Guild in convention assembled con- 
demns all attacks on academic freedom 
and particularly condemns the actions 
of the Rapp-Coudert Committee, the 
New York Board of Education, the 
Board of Higher Education, the refusal 
of the College of the City of New York 
to review the appointment of Dr. Max 
Yergan and the termination by Swarth- 
more College of the appointment of 
Josephine Truslow Adams {Lawyers 
Guild Reviexo, vol. 1, No. 1, No. 4, 
June 1941, p. 63). 

Lawvers Guild Raps Coudert Witch- 
Hunt. ' 

Charges Body Failed to Uncover 
Activity of pro-Fascists. 

Although the Rapp-Coudert Com- 
mittee has spent more than a quarter 
of a million dollars in public funds, it 
has failed to unearth a single example 
of fascist or pro-Nazi activity in our 
public school system, the New York 
Chapter of the National Lawyers Guild 
charged yesterday. 

The Lawyers Guild called upon the 
state legislature to at least give oppo- 
nents of the Rapp-Coudert Committee 
an opportunity to be heard before acting 
upon its extension. 

The statement pointed out that the 
Rapp-Coudert Committee was created 
to investigate the cost of education in 
the State and that up to now nothing 
has bc-en heard of this phase of the 
inquiry {Daily Worker, March 25, 1942, 
p. 5). 




(Explanatory Note. — ^The Tenney Committee was the California Joint 
Fact Finding Committee on Un-American Activities.) 


State Senator Jack B. Tenney today 
initiated his version of a book-burning 
crusade against The Daily People's 

Enraged at the paper's forthright 
opposition to his activities, the senator 
concluded his Un-American committee 
hearings late yesterday by receiving 
rubberstamp approval of a resolution 
urging a boycott of the Daily People's 
World. {Daily People's World. Feb- 
ruary 21, 1948, p. 1). 


The California Tenney Committee 
on Un-American Activities is the 
counterpart on a state scale of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities of 
the House of Representatives * * * 
the National Lawyers Guild reiterates 
its position that the rights of an indi- 
vidual against interference or inquiry 
into his political, social and economic 
views and beliefs are inviolate and may 
not be the subject of inquisition by 
any agency of government * * * 
(National Lawyers Guild Convention 
Resolution, February 1948. Lawyers 
Guild Revieio, January-February 1948, 
pp. 329, 330). 

4. Trial of Communist Leaders 

The destruction of the rights of the 
Communist is the classical first step 
down the road to fascism. (1948 
Election Platform of the Communist 
Party, Political Affairs, September 
1948, p. 940). 

End the witch hunts, loyalty orders 
and phony spy scares. 

Abolish the Un-American Committee. 
Withdraw the indictments against the 
twelve Communist leaders and the con- 
tempt citations against the anti-fascist 
victims of Congressional inquisitions 
(1948 Election Platform of the Com- 
munist Party, Political Affairs, Septem- 
ber 1948, p. 941). 

As construed and applied to these 
indictments, therefore, the Smith Act 
infringes the basic rights of the de- 
fendants to speech, press and assembly, 
destroys their right to organize and 
assemble with others as a political party, 
suppresses their right to expound, and 
advocate a social science — and is 
therefore unconstitutional. * * * 

Martin Popper, an executive of the 
National Lawyers Guild, addressed the 
World Congress of International Demo- 
cratic Lawyers at Prague, September 7, 
1948, and proposed that it send a 
European lawyer to observe the trial 
of the 12 American Communist leaders. 
Popper warned that "the indictment of 
Communist leaders presages the begin- 
ning of the end of the Constitutional 
form of government in America." 
Daily Worker, September 9, 1948, p. 2), 

An aynicus curiae brief, filed by the 
National Lawyers Guild, October 7, 
1948, before U. S. District Judge 
Murray Hulbert regarding the indict- 
ment of the twelve leaders of the Com-- 
munist Party, contained the following 
statements : 

"These indictments are part of the 
ominous pattern that has come to 
threaten the entire Bill of Rights. 

"They are a direct outcome of the 
anti-Communist hysteria, spy hunts, 
etc., that daily fill the press and every 
other channel of public informa- 
tion. * * * 

"We respectfully urge this court to 
assert the judicial integrity of our 
Constitutional system by dismissing 
these indictments as the clearest viola- 
tion of the First Amendment." • {Daily 
Worker, October 8, 1948, p. 1). 




The indictments should be dismissed 
(From the Briefs on the Unconstitu- 
tionaUty of the Smith Act, Political 
Affairs, November 1948, pp. 1026- 

It is thus made abundantly clear 
that a government is attempting by the 
use of the law and courts to eliminate 
political opposition. This strikes at the 
vitals of our whole democratic process 
(Ibid., p. 1015). 


What is needed here in an all-out 
mass campaign that will * * * gg. 
cure the dismissal of -the Grand Jury 
indictments against our Party, repeal 
the "Loyalty order" and the Smith 
Act * * * (The Fascist Danger 
and How To Combat It — Eugene Den- 
nis, Political Affairs, September, 1948, 
pp. 795, 796) . 

Our attack is upon the grand jury, 
•the petit jury panels, all panels, all of 
the lists from which both grand and 
petit juries are drawn, and indeed, the 
entire system of jury selection here 
{The Federal Jury is stacked Against 
You, Marion Bachrach, Communist 
Party Defense Committee, New York, 
January 1949). 

Immediately after the infamous ver- 
dict was rendered the judge "turned to 
some unfinished business" and, in a 
manner bristling with hate and sadistic 
satisfaction, found all the defense law- 
yers guilty of criminal contempt and 
sentenced them to severe prison sen- 

The persecution of the Communist 
Party and its members has for some time 
now been an avowed governmental 
objective. A campaign of calumny and 
slander emanating from governmental 
sources has accompanied every legal 
device used by officialdom to limit the 
activities and silence the voice of this 
Party and its members * * * w^g 
witness every day * * * ^^g label of 
"Communist" and "subversive" placed 
upon persons whose only crime appears 
to be hostility towards present day 
governmental policy, domestic or for- 

There can be no talk of freedom if the 
ideas of the Communist Party are 
suppressed. * * * \Yg ^all for a re- 
peal of the Smith Act and the end of all 
prosecutions thereunder (Resolutions 
of February 1949, National Convention, 
National Lawyers Guild, Lawyers Guild 
Review, vol. IX, No. 1, Winter 1949, 
p. 52). 

* * * The duty of a Court is to 
see that juries are fair and impartial, 
and fairly represent a cross section of 
the community; and to halt a prosecu- 
tion where such fair and impartial jury 
does not exist. It is time for Courts, 
and legislatures to overhaul the entire 
method of selecting juries to the end 
that justice shall be fairly adminis- 
istered (Ibid., p. 53). 

On March 2, 1949, the New York 
Chapter of the Guild filed an amicus 
curiae brief in the case of the Com- 
munist Party leaders supporting a de- 
fense motion to quash the indictment 
on the ground that the jury lists, 
which were the source of the Grand 
and Petit Jury, were illegally selected 
and constituted {Guild Lawyer, Spring 
1949. pp. 12 and 13). 

A committee of prominent attorneys 
will shortly begin a study to determine 
whether the freedom of Counsel effec- 
tively to represent the Foley Square 
defendants has been preserved, it was 
announced yesterday bv the New 
York City chapter of the National 





tences. This unprecedented procedure Lawyers Guild {Daily Worker, Sep- 
in an American court is not only an tember 12, 1949, p. 3). 
attack upon the rights and duty of the 
legal profession faithfully to defend 
their clients, but it deprives the defend- 
ants, who were rushed to jail without 
bail, of the indispensable services of the 
lawj'ers most familiar with the case to 
carry forward their appeals (Elizabeth 
Guriey Flynn in Introduction to In 
Defense of Your Freedom, by Eugene 
Dennis, New Century Publishers, New 
York, October 1949). 

5. Federal Bureau of Investigation 

Investigate the Federal Bureau of In- 
vestigation because of "vicious assaults 
upon civil liberties" Editorial, Daily 
Worker, March 13, 1940, p. 6). 

An article in the Daily Worker indi- 
cated that the FBI had gone beyond the 
scope of its authority in conducting 
general intelligence investigations. Ref- 
erence was made to the increase in the 
FBI's appropriation over a period of 
years, and it was alleged that because 
of its Director's "absorbing interest in 
investigating alleged subversive activi- 
ties" the FBI was falling behind in its 
regular job of dealing with other types 
of specific Federal violations {Daily 
Worker, March 25, 1940). 

The Nazi Gestapo is Hoover's Model 
of Conduct for FBI {Daily Worker, 
December 19, 1940, p. 5, columns 5, 6, 
and 7) . 

Federal Bureau of Investigation Di- 
rector J. Edgar Hoover was referred 
to as "Chief of the national thought 
police * * * " (Editorial, Political 
Affairs, January 1948, p. 10). 

It seems that the FBI * * * jg 
worried that the American people may 
get wise to its real function — - which is 
thought control on the Gestapo and 
Japanese police model (Editorial, The 
Worker, June 6, 1948, p. 6). 

The FBI and the Department of Jus- 
tice have developed into a secret political 
police which exists outside the law and 
beyond the U. S. Constitution. * * * 
An aroused nation must stop the FBI 
effort to replace the American Constitu- 
tion by the reign of the political spv 
(Editorial, Daily Worker, June 13, 1949, 
p. 7). 

Continuation of * * * protests can 
turn the rumors about J. Edgar Hoover's 
resignation into actual and heartening 
fact (Editorial, Daily People's World, 
June 16, 1949, p. 6). 

The FBI's "undercover network" is a 
menace to the internal security of the 
nation * * * The American people 

* * * the National Lawyers Guild 
in convention assembled opposes the 
Gestapo activities of the Federal Bureau 
of Investigation, calls for the removal of 
its Director, and urged Congress to re- 
duce its appropriations so as to restrict 
its jurisdiction to the field of federal 
crime and to deprive it of authority to 
act in matters which affect labor or 
civil rights (National Lawyers Guild 
Convention Resolution, Maj'-June 
1941; Lawyers Guild Review, vol. 1, No. 
4, June 1941, p. 66). 

* * * the FBI has taken upon 
itself the role of a political police on the 
Continental model * * * -phe Guild 
believes it is not the province or function 
of the FBI or other police agencies to 
maintain dossiers of individuals' lawful 
political activities. The Guild requests 
the Congress to conduct an investigation 
into the activities of the FBI * * * 
(National Lawyers Guild Convention 
Resolution, February 1948; Lawyers 
Guild Review, February 1948, p. 320). 

The American people are entitled to 
full information on the extent to which 
the FBI has developed into a dangerous, 
secret police. * * * The National 
Lawyers Guild recommends "a compre- 
hensive investigation into the operations 
and methods of the FBI" (National LaW' 
yers Guild release, Daily Worker, June 
20, 1949, p. 4, c3). 





must rid the nation of this "undercover 
network," which serves not th© nation 
but a class, the minority of the financial- 
industrial cliciues. The Bill of Rights 
and the FBI's "undercover network" 
are incompatible. One or the other 
must go. We have no doubt which the 
people will choose (Editorial, Daily 
Worker, June 21, 1949, p. 8). 

Surely the American people must see 
the FBI with new eyes today. The 
time has come to investigate its meth- 
ods, its scandal-mongering lists, its 
blackmailing data, its misuse of public 
funds, its usurpation of power, its ten- 
tacles gripping all parts of our country 
and its people {Daily Worker, p. 10, 
June 29, 1949, written by Elizabeth 
Gurley Flynn). 

6. Hollywood Ten 

(Explanatory Note. — In 1947 the Committee on Un-American Activities 
held a hearing in which ten Hollywood writers refused to answer questions regard- 
ing their Communist affiliations. They held that the Committee had no such 
authority. The authority of the Committee on this matter has since been upheld 
by the U. S. Supreme Court.) 


No Hollywood grade B stinkeroo 
ever was as hammy in acting, as corny 
in plot, or as phony iii general as the 
probe now being staged by the headline 
hunters of the House Un-American 

* * * The men running this show 
are not the little puppets of the Un- 
American Committee. These ambitious 
little ward-heelers aie merely the dollar- 
a-day exti-as in the business. It is Big 
Business — the National Association of 
Manufacturers and the Wall Street 
labor- hating industrialists — which is 
writing the script and giving the com- 

* * * Appeasement by this nr 
that Hollywood producer and actor 
will not satisfy these un-American 
totalitarians. Only American courage 
and bold defiance of their book-burning 
witch-hunt benefit any American worthy 
of the name * * * (Editorial, Daily 
Worker, October 22, 1947, p. 9). 

7. Loyalty Program (Under Executive Order 9835.) 


The New York .Journal American 
of October 17, 1947, stated that 18 
screen writers, producers, and actors 
had released an open letter sponsored 
by the National Lawyers Guild on the 
issue of "Freedom of the Screen from 
Political Intimidation and Censorship." 

The Washington Post of October 19, 
1947, stated that the Guild was to 
sponsor a meeting October 20, 1947, at 
the National Press Building, Washing- 
ton, D. C, to afford the Hollywood 
personalities summoned by the House 
Committee on Un-American Activities 
an opportunity to state their case. 

The implications of President Tru- 
man's executive order for "loyalty" 
tests among federal employees reach far 
beyond the 2,200,000 federal workers 
and their families. The order flashes 
the signal for inquisitions and intimida- 
tion of all who disagree with the govern- 
ment's foreign and domestic policy. 

* * * ICxecutive decrees bypassing 

legally elected bodies were the path 

-taken in many European nations to 

install police states and fascist rule. To 

On June 7, 1947, in testimony before 
a U. S. House of Representatives Com- 
mittee concerning proposed loyalty 
legislation a Guild official objected to 
the legislation as well as to Executive 
Order '9835 on the grounds that the 
FBI would be the investigator, the 
judge, and the jury. He stated further, 
"When it is considered that both the 
House Committee on Un-American 
Activities and the FBI are sources of 
information specifically included in the 




bow before these steps would be the 
height of disloyalty to every principle 
upon which our nation was founded. 

Not only the Communists, but all 
labor, the Negro jDeople, professionals, 
small business men, farmers and all who 
value their right to oppose Wall Street 
dictation of our foreign and domestic 
policy — all should call for the repeal of 
President Truman's executive order. 
The President and Congressmen should 
hear from the people back home in 
letters, telegrams and resolutions (Edi- 
torial, Daily Worker, March 25, 1947, 
p. 3). 

Nearly two million Americans are 
going to have their heads examined. 
Not that they are crazy or anvthing like 
that. They are the 1,900,000 Govern- 
ment employees who will all face a 
"loyalty purge" for which Congress has 

There is no greater patriotic duty 
today than for progressive Americans 
to stand up to the witch-hunters and to 
defy them to forbid the "dangerous 
thoughts" of the American democracy 
(Editorial, Daily Worker, July 29, 

1947, p. 7). 

Two items in yesterday's news bring 
home to us the fact that the police state 
is rapidly taking shape in our land. 

The process of checking the "loyalty" 
of the 2,000,000 government workers 
was initiated, a check ordered by Presi- 
dent Truman and endorsed by the 
GOP-dominated Congress with an ap- 
propriation of $11,000,000. 

Loyalty to what? One tip-off is the 
fact that the "loyalty check" question- 
naire goes back to organizational ties of 
10 years ago. It was then that miJHons 
of Americans, including many govern- 
ment workers, were actively aiding the 
people of Spain in their heroic battle to 
prevent Hitler and Mussolini from tak- 
ing over their land as a fascist satellite. 

Such support of democracy is "dis- 
loyal" in Washington today, as is alle- 
giance to the ideals of peace and the 
destruction of world fascism advanced 
by FDR * * * (Editorial, Daily 
Worker, August 19, 1947, p. 7). 

* * * End the witch hunts, loyal- 
ty orders, and phony spy scares. 

Abohsh the Un-American Committee. 
Withdraw the indictments against the 
twelve Communist leaders and the con- 
tempt citations against the anti-fascist 
victims of congressional inquisitions 
* * * {Political Affairs, September 

1948, p. 941, Article: "1948 Election 
Platform of the Communist Party"). 


-QUI * * * ^jig dangers of the Bill 
are emphasized." He submitted to the 
Committee a copy of a pamphlet entitled 
"The Constitutional Right to Advocate 
Political, Social, and Economic 
Change — An Essential of American 
Democracy," and subtitled, "An Analy- 
sis of Proposed Federal Legislation and 
Executive Order 9835." Pamphlet, 
prepared by the Guild, stated: 

"The publication by the Attorney 
General, pursuant to the 'Loyalty 
Order,' of a list of organizations which 
he characterizes as dislo3'al, is a direct 
attack on the rights of freedom of asso- 
ciation and expression protected by the 
First Amendment. There is no ascer- 
tainable source of power for this action. 
It is clear that constitutionally no sanc- 
tions may be imposed upon political 
beliefs. * * *" 

The Guild urges that the President 
rescind Executive Order 9835 (Lawyers 
Guild Review, vol. VIII, No. 1, J.o.nuary- 
February 1948, p. 319). 

More than a year has elapsed since 
the promulgation of the Loyalty Order 
by the Executive arm of the Govern- 
ment. * * * Already, political par- 
ties, civic organizations, fraternal or- 
ganizations, organizations of the most 
diverse character, have been stigma- 
tized as disloyal and subversive. Tax 
exemptions have been canceled. Li- 
censes to collect funds for relief have 
been denied. Each day men and 
women, good pubhc servants, find 
themselves facing an inquisition into 
their lives, both past and present, by 
loyalty boards, F. B. I. agents, super- 
visors and a host of other petty offi- 
cials. * * * 

* * * men's ideas, opinions and 
beliefs are beyond the pale of govern- 
ment interdiction. * * * \yg ^rge the 
revocation of the President's loyalty 
and all similar test oaths {Lawyers Guild 
Review, vol. IX, No. 1, Winter 1949, 
pp. 51, 52). 



8. Peekskill Incident 

(Explanatory Note.- — A New York State Grand Jury has found that certain 
incidents which occurred in Peekskill, New York, on August 27 and September 4, 
1949, indicated that they were "used by the Communist Party as proving ground 
to test its machinery for mobiUzing its forces, manipulating public opinion, and^ 
more important, for rehearsing its strong-arm forces.") 


The would-be lynching of Paul 
Robeson by the Peekskill, N. Y., mob 
can mean to America what the burning 
of the books in Berlin, 1933, meant to 
Germany and the world. 

Let no American delude himself into 
thinking that this was a local affair 
with local significance only. 

This would-be lynching, this burning 
of books and music to the accompani- 
ment of savage yells against Jews and 
N — — rs impose police state terrorism 
in the U. S. A. against the entire Negro 
people and the nation as a whole. 
* * * {Daily Worker, August 29, 
1949, p. 7). 

* * * Peekskill demonstrated to 
progressive forces throughout the nation 
that Fascist forces can be successfully 
challenged by the people once the 
people are sufficiently aroused to the 
Fascist peril. * * * [Daily Worker, 
September 7, 1949, p. 2). 

9. Prosecution of Gerhart Eisler 

(Explanatory Note. — Gerhart Eisler, an agent of the Communist International, 
was exposed as such by witnesses before the Committee on Un-American Activities 
and later the subject of proceedings by the Department of Justice on charges of 
passport violation.) 

national lawyers guild 

Lawyers Guild asks McGrath act on 

The National Lawyers Guild yester- 
day called on Attorney General Mc- 
Grath to investigate the Peekskill 
attack of August 27 and "to take 
vigorous action against those respon- 
sible" for any violation of federal law. 

"So widespread were the rumors and 
so well-grounded the apprehension that 
a riot would take place, that we cannot 
believe the authorities were not fully 
aware of the situation," says the Guild 
letter to McGrath (Daily Worker, 
September 5, 1949, p. 9). 


The treatment handed out to Gerhart 
Eisler, noted German Communist and 
antifascist, by the U. S. Department of 
Justice is an international disgrace. 

* * * the sole "crime" which the 
authorities could frame him for is a 
measly alleged technical violation on a 
passport application to quit the country, 
and the "crime" of contempt of the 
House Un-American Committee — a 
contempt which every decent American 
will heartilv share * * *_ (Edito- 
rial, Daily Worker, May 16, 1949, p. 7). 

Eisler, who fled from the United 
States in May 1949, was during that 
same month "unanimously elected to 
the government of East Germany" 
(Soviet Sector) (Daily Worker, May 31. 
1949, p. 2). 

national lawyers guiu> 

The National Lawyers Guild, among 
others, filed a statement with the 
United States Supreme Court in behalf 
of Gerhart Eisler urging reversal of his 
conviction for Contempt of Congress 
(Dailv Worker, March 28, 1949, p. 3 
c. 2-3). 



10, Non-Communist Affidavit in the Taft-Hartley Act 


* * * it must be made clear that 
the anti-Communist clause in the Taft- 
Hartley Act is clearly intended to be 
used against every trade-union leader 
who is progressive and militant, whether 
he be a Communist or not. It is clearly 
unconstitutional and must also be chal- 
lenged on that basis, although the main 
fight must be made by the wokers and 
the union (Portion of a report delivered 
by John Williamson at the June 27-30, 
1947, meeting of the National Com- 
mittee CP USA. Political Affairs, 
August 1947, p. 709). 

national lawyers guild 

We call for the immediate repeal of 
the Taft-Hartley Law with its infamous 
test oath (National Lawyers Guild Con- 
vention Resolution, February 1949; 
Lawyers Guild Review, vol. IX, No. 1, 
Winter 1949, p. 52). 

11. Universal Military Training 

The Communist Party is opposed to 
both universal military training and the 
peacetime draft. These proposals 

* * * ■ are not required to defend 
our nation from any foreign threat 

* * * The proposal to militarize our 
youth goes hand in hand with steps 
toward the militarization of the nation 
as a whole, and the sacrifice of the 
people's living standards to the require- 
ments of a war economy * * * 
Those who today make our bipartisan 
foreign policy seek to * * * un- 
loose a war of aggression against the 
Soviet Union and the East-European 
democracies. (Testimony submitted on 
April 2, 1948, to the Senate Armed 
Services Committee, in behalf of the 
Communist Party; Political Affairs, 
May 1948, pp. 412 and 415). 

End the "cold war," the draft, and the 
huge military budget * * * (1943 
Election Platform of the CP USA; 
Political Affairs, September 1948, p. 

The proposed military mobilization, 
if approved by Congress, will greatly 
accelerate our steady drift toward war 
* * * xhe President's message call- 
ing for the draft and universal military 
training has presented no facts to sup- 
port his charge that American security 
is threatened * * * no facts have 
yet been adduced to support the charges 
of aggression or intervention levelled at 
the Soviet Union (Statement on Con- 
scription and Universal Military Train- 
ing by the National Lawyers Guild, 
April 16, 1948). 

The United States Congress should 
"repudiate the concept of compulsory 
peacetime military training and repeal 
the Selective Service Act of 1948 and 
then reduce appropriations for military 
expenditures, applying the saving there- 
by produced to programs needed for the 
improvement of housing, health, educa- 
tion, social security, and the conserva- 
tion of national resources" (National 
Lawyers Guild Convention Resolution, 
February 1949; Lawyers Guild Review, 
vol. IX, No. 1, Winter 1949, p. 56). 

12. VooRHis Act 

(Explanatory Note. — The Voorhis Act provides for the registration of certain 
organizations within the United States which are under foreign control. It was 
followed by the formal disaffiliation of the Communist Party, U. S. A., from the 
Communist International for the specific purpose of evading the act.) 

communist party, u. s. a. 

The Voorhis bill 

"is such a dia- 

bolical attack on all trade-unions peace 
and progressive organizations that they 
dare not give the people any notice 
* * * no time can be lost, if another 
blitzkrieg against civil rights is to be 
prevented." Demand "that the Voor- 
his Act be killed" (Editorial, Daily 
Worker, July 3, 1940, p. 6, c. 1). 

national lawyers guild 

* * * the bill is an invasion on 
the civil liberties and political freedom 
of American citizens and should be de- 
feated (Statement of the Committee on 
Civil Rights and Liberties of the Na- 
tional Lawyers Guild, Daily Worker, 
August 2, 1940, p. 2, c. 3-4). 



B. Foreign Affairs 

1. China 

(Explanatory Note. — The line of the Soviet "Union and the Communist 
Party, U. S. A., in 1945 veered against the Chiang Kai-shek Nationalists regime, 
for open support of the Chinese Communists and against American support of the 


Workers in the factories, farmers, 
church groups, all the great democratic 
organizations of the American people 
must protest the use of American arms 
and American personnel in the effort 
of the Chungking dictatorship to uproot 
and destroy Chinese democracy (Avert 
Civil War in China, Frederick V. Field, 
Political Affairs, September 1945, p. 

An aroused American people can 
check the aggressive, interventionalist 
drive of U. S. imperialism along a course 
that can only lead to a new world 
slaughter * * * 

Stop the reactionary intervention of 
the U. S. A. in Chinese internal affairs. 

Repudiate and recall Hurley and 

Withdraw American Troops from 

Speed demobilization and bring the 
boys home. (Stop American Inter- 
vention in China, Rob Fowler Hall, 
Political Affairs, December 1945, pp. 

Let us end U. S. bribing of Kuomin- 
tang reaction and clear our armed 
forces out of China. (U. S. Imperialist 
Intervention in China, B. T. Lo, 
Political Affairs, July 1946, p. 613). 

A democratic American policy for 
China must include immediate with- 
drawal of all U. S. military forces, 
advisors, equipment, and installations 
from Chinese soil and Chinese waters. 
It must cease all financial, industrial, 
and political aid to the reactionary 
Nanking government. Ail forms of relief 
to China must be stopped because they 
directly aid Chiang's civil war. The 
promises of support to a democratic 
coahtion government should be made, 
but it should not be given effect until 
such a government has replaced the type 
of regime which now seeks to control the 
country (The New China Program of the 
American Interventionists, Frederick V. 
Field, Political Affairs, January 1948, 
p. 63). 

* * * we must now help organize 
the widest support and nation-wide 
demonstrative activity * * * to 
render the most complete political, 
moral, and economic aid to the people's 
democratic movement in China, Latin 


The National Lawyers Guild was one 
of 15 organizations represented at a 
meeting November 28, 1945, in the 
office of U. S. Representative Hugh 
De Lacy to discuss the fight for an 
''anti-Chinese intervention resolution" 
offered in Congress the previous Monday 
by Representative De Lacy and five 
other West Coast representatives {Daily 
Worker, November 29, 1945, p. 2). 

Withdraw all American armed forces 
from China (Resolution on American 
Foreign Policy, Seventh National Con- 
vention, National Lawyers Guild, July 
4-7, 1946; Lawyers Guild Review, vol. 
VI, No. 2, May-June 1946, p. 518). 

A resolution adopted at the February 
1948 convention of the National Law- 
yers Guild urged that — 

"1. Aid be given to the Chinese 
people without regard to their geograph- 
ical location or political beliefs. 

"2. Such aid should be given only 
through an agency created by the United 
Nations in accordance with the princi- 
ples which governed the operation of 
U. N. R. R. A., and 

"3. The United States should im- 
mediately withdraw all military and 
naval personnel from China, and cease 
operation of air bases and naval installa- 
tions in that country" {Lawyers Guild 
Review, vol. VIII, No. 1, January- 
February 1948, p. 317). 




America, and Greece (The role of the 
Communist Party in the Present Situa- 
tion, Eugene Dennis, Political Affairs, 
March 1948. p. 211). 

The following major issues confront 
the people in the present election 

* * * for withdrawal of all Amer- 
ican military aid and personnel from 
Greece, China, and Turkey * * * 
(Draft Resolution for the National 
Convention, C. P. U. S. A., Political 
Affairs, June 1948, p, 501). 

Stop military aid and intervention in 
China, Korea, and Greece (1948 Election 
Platform of thee Communist Party, 
Political Affairs, September^l948, p. 

Be assured, dear comrades, we shall 
play our part in the united mass struggle 
for effectuating the Cairo and Potsdam 
agreements, for stopping Wall Street's 
imperialist intervention 
in China * * * (Political Affairs, 
December 1948, p. 1140. From a tele- 
gram sent by the Communist Party, 
U. S. A., to the "Glorious Communist 
Party of China.") 

This month, a new Congress convenes 
in Washington. It is incumbent on the 
American people, in the first place the 
American labor and progressive move- 
ments, not to overlook this opportunity 
to demand an end to all political, mili- 
tary and financial intervention in China. 
The Chinese people must be allowed to 
find their own way to freedom, inde- 
pendence, and democracy without 
American interference in any guise (The 
meaning of the Chinese Revolutionary 
Victories, Frederick V. Field, Political 
Affairs, January 1949, p. 73). 

The American people have the duty 
to raise the demand for the withdrawal 
of all American armed forces and ships 
from Chinese territory and waters; for 
an end to all other support of the cor- 
rupt, decadent and counter-revolution- 
ary elements; for an end to all imperial- 
ist intervention; for the defeat of all 
current proposals for new aid to the 
enemies of the Chinese people; for the 
establishment of a real "Hands off" 
policy toward China. 

The common interest of the American 
and Chinese peoples, and of world peace, 
demands the complete recognition of the 
new Chinese Democracy by the United 
States Government and the establish- 
ment of normal trade relations on the 
basis of equality (National Committee, 
C. P., U. S. A., Salute to the Chinese 
People's Victories, Political Affairs, 
May 1949, pp. 1, 2). 


Resolution on China 

* * * We urge an immediate eco- 
nomic end to the continuing military, 
economic, and other aid to the Koumin- 
tang regime. A great nation in Asia is 
being reborn and unlimited opfjortunity 
exists for restoring the immense reser- 
voir of good will between the American 
and Chinese people which was once and 
should be again the keystone of our 

We urge that immediate economic 
assistance be given to the impoverished 
Chinese people without regard to their 
geographical location or their political 
beliefs, such assistance to be given 
through an agency of, or in cooperation 
with, the United Nations (Resolution of 
February 1949, National Convention of 
National Lawyers Guild, Lawyers Guild 
Review, vol. IX, No. 1, Winter 1949, 
p. 56). 



2. European Recovery Program 


* * * Giving Greece aid through 
the United Nations — only civilian, not 
military aid — is the heart of the Pepper- 
Taylor idea. It reflects the popular 
fear for the fate of the United Nations, 
and it should get support from the wid- 
est circles, even those who may not agree 
with Pepper or Taylor on other matters. 

And the resolution should provide 
that the United Nations give aid with- 
out strings attached and no help to the 
monarchist-fascist regime. Failure to 
mention these points weakens the resolu- 
tion; we believe these provisions should 
be added. 

But the first thing is to stop the rush 
on the Truman- Vandenberg monstros- 
ity, and get full public hearings for the 
alternative — the Pepper-Taylor resolu- 
tion {Daily Worker, March 28, 1947, p. 


* * * Stop military aid and inter- 
vention in China, Korea, and Greece 
* * * (Political Affairs, September 
1948, pp. 938-939, Article: "1948 Elec- 
tion Platform of the Communist 

* * * Scrap the Marshall Plan 
and the Truman Doctrine. Furnish 
large-scale economic assistance to the 
war-ravaged victims of fascist attack. 
Give this aid through the United Na- 
tions without political strings * * * 
{Political Affairs, September 1948, pp. 
938-939, Article: "1948 Election Plat- 
form of the Communist Party"). 


The violation of the Charter and the 
bypassing of the United Nations are 
fraught with grave consequences to world 
peace. The legislation to implement 
the President's proposals is violative of 
the UN Charter, would tend to under- 
mine the United Nations, and destroy 
the only hope for world peace. Con- 
gress should reject the Greco-Turkish 
aid bills * * * (Committee on In- 
ternational Law, National Lawyers 
Guild, Lawyers Guild Review, vol. VII, 
No. 2, March-April 1947, p. 86). 

The hearings on the bill indicate 
that the European Recovery program 
would retard rather than promote trade 
and economic relations between the 
countries of Eastern Europe and West- 
ern Europe and foster division among 
the nations of the world. 

ERP fails to fulfill the objectives of a 
sound plan for genuine aid for European 

The unilateral approach of ERP is con- 
trary to the sound policy of utilizing the 
United Nations organization * * * 
The direction of ERP may be gauged 
in the light of American Foreign 
Policy of which it is a part. The Tru- 
man Doctrine, which remains in opera- 
tion today, sanctions military interven- 
tion in Greece, Turkey, and China which 
serves to maintain in power corrupt and 
antidemocratic regimes {Lawyers Guild 
Review, vol. VIII, No. 1, January- 
February 1948, pp. 316, 317). 

3. Germany 

Boycott all goods to or from Germany, 
Japan, and Italy. Refuse to load goods 
on ships going to or coming from Ger- 
many, Italy, or Japan. 

Not a ton of coal, not a barrel of 
petroleum, not a bar of steel, nothing 
for the troops of invasion and the traitor 
Franco {Daily Worker, January 27, 1939, 

p. 1). 

Our government must be held to its 
obHgations under the Potsdam agree- 
ment for a Big Four settlernent that will 
assure a democratically unified Ger- 
many, able and willing to pay just repa- 
rations, and ready to rejoin the family 
of democratic European nations. Any 
other course, such as the present ma- 
neuvering for control of the Ruhr and 
for a West European bloc under Ameri- 
can cartel domination, would lead away 
from peace and would strengthen the 
forces of reaction here at home. (James 
S. Allen, The Marshall Offensive for 
Imperializing the Ruhr, Political Affairs, 
vol. XXVI, No. 8 (August 1947), p. 

The National Lawyers Guild * * * 
urges the National Munitions Control 
Board to terminate the practice of ap- 
proving munitions exports to Germany 
and further urges the National Muni- 
tions Control Board to modify its prac- 
tice of denying the public access to ap- 
proved licenses for mimitions exports 
(Resolution adopted at 3d Annual Con- 
vention of the National Lawyers Guild, 
February 10-13, 1939; National Lawyers 
Guild Quarterly, vol. 2, No. 1, April 
1939, p. 86). 

Resolved that the Ruhr be placed 
under four-power control as part of a 
general settlement looking toward the 
unification of Germany and the rebuild- 
ing of Europe for world peace (Resolu- 
tion of National Lawyers Guild Na- 
tional Convention, February 1938; 
Lawyers Guild Review, vol. 8, No. 1, 
January- February 1948, p. 318). 



4. Indonesia 


Britain and America * * * are 
acting to stifle all freedom movements 
in India, Egypt, Indonesia, etc. 

Support the national liberation strug- 
gles of the colonial and dependent 
peoples (Statement issued on March 5, 
1946, by the National Secretariat of the 
Communist Party, USA. Political Af- 
fairs, vol. XXV, No. 4 (April 1946), pp. 
292, 293). 


The report of the Committee on In- 
ternational Law and Relations, adopted 
by the National Executive Board of the 
Guild in February 1946 stated: 

"7. We have given support to Brit- 
ish-Dutch imperialism in Java and In- 
donesia by supplying arms for the sup- 
pression of national movements in these 
countries." (Lawyers Guild I9bview, vol. 
VI, No. 1 (January- February 1946), p. 
414). ^ 

5. Iran 

The Myth of the Iranian "Dispute" 

The so-called Iranian issue before the 
Security Council was a fraud. By 
March 26, when the Council began 
discussing it, no dispute existed. The 
myth of a "dispute" was systematically 
fabricated by the American and British 
governments in a deliberate attempt to 
embarrass the Soviet Union * * * j^ 
perpetrating this fraud the imperialists 

had several interconnected motives. 

* * * 

The myth of the Iranian dispute was 
invented partly in order to direct world 
attention from these imperialist policies. 
It was concocted as part of the entire 
policy of US-British imperialism to 
leave unfulfilled the agreements reached 
at Moscow, Yalta, and Potsdam * * * 
(Exploding the Iranian Myth, by 
Frederick V. Field, Political Affairs, 
May 1946, pp. 397, 398). 

The Guild's special committee on the 
United Nations recommended April 13, 
1946, that the Iranian question be 
dropped from the agenda of the Security 
Council in view of the declaration by 
Premier Ahmad Ghavam of Iran, and 
Premier Stahn that the controversy be- 
tween Iran and the Soviet Union had 
been settled to the satisfaction of both 

The Committee also expressed the 
opinion that the application of the 
Soviet delegate to the Security Council 
for an adjournment to April 10, should 
have been granted without question, 
thus eliminating "the friction and the 
appearance of crisis which was propa- 
gated in the press" {New York Times, 
April 14, 1946, p. 46). 

6. Korea 

What we are faced with in the policy 
of intervention against Chinese democ- 
racy is not a mere aberration in Amer- 
ican foreign policy * * * It is part 
of a general pattern of American im- 
perialism's foreign policy which, while 
adopting different tactical approaches 
to different parts of the world, shows a 
reactionary consistency throughout. 
This explains * * * the imposition 
of a coalition, of the "Right" upon the 
Koreans, the obliteration of a "Lidice" 
in North China and the undermining of 
Big Three unity and the authority of 
the Security Council of the United 
Nations (Frederick V. Field, The 
Record of American Imperialism in 
China, Political Affairs, vol. XXV, No. 1 
(January 1946), p. 31). 

Referring to U. S. foreign policy, the 
National Lawyers Guild's Committee on 
International Law and relations stated: 

"We (the U. S. A.) have opposed the 
national aspirations of the Korean 
people" (Lawyers Guild Review, vol. VI, 
No. 1, p. 414 (January-February 1946)). 


7. Argentina 

communist party, u. s. a. national lawyers guild 

Certainly there can be no thought National Lawyers Guild Urges State 

of inviting Argentina to attend the San Department Bar Argentine at 

Francisco parley. And the American Prisco 
people through all their organizations 

must make this very clear in Washing- Washington, April 22. — Secretary of 

ton {Daily Worker, April 11, 1945, State Stettinius was urged by the Na- 

(editorial), p. 6). tional Lawyers Guild this week to op- 

Molol^v Fights Argentine Bid But POse membership of Argentina in the 

Conference Approves Entry {Daily United Nations and to bar its participa- 

Worker (headline) May 1, 1945). ' ^ion in the San Francisco Conference 

_ Break diplomatic relations with fas- {Daily Worker, April 23, 1945, p. 9). 
cist Spain and Argentina * * *. 

Remove from the State Department Lawyers Ask U. S. Lead in Breaking 

all pro-fascist and reactionary officials With Argentina 

(Resolution of the National Convention ox c at. j. -o j 

of the C. P., U. S. A, adopted July 28, Secretary of State Byrnes was urged 

\Mb; Political Affairs, v<^\lLXlN,^o. j;^'*^,^^^^ ^^J^? National Lawyers 

9 (September 1945), p. 823). ^'"'^ to mstitute jomt consultation 

Even under the liberal Roosevelt ^"^^^^ the American Republics for 

regime, when the Latin-American re- breaking diplomatic relations with Ar- 

publics were accorded more democratic S^"*'"^i J^f ^ " ' ^ ^'A° ''''' ^'^ ^? *« 

treatment by the United States Gov- removal of the State Department offi- 

ernment than ever before, the agents ,T^ responsible for the recognition of 

of the great American trusts, most of *^^ /f^'f 'T^^'"" ?'''^^^°r^T' * ^""u 

which were in violent opposition to urged that their places * * * be 

Roosevelt, busily cultivated fascist- *^'f.^" ^^y those who will steadfastly 

minded reaction throughout Latin ^^5^^^ ^? ^ ff^^^ °^ 5^ ^"5 ^^'^''^ 

America. Their most recent blows ^"^ P^'^-^^"^.^"'^ /^^^^ ^".^ ?,^ ^^^^"i'^S 

against democracy (struck by two big ^^^^^''^f^:, 7^*^f w^V'^^T ^"1 o" 

businessmen holding office in the State 1Q4r'^°^s^ ^^'''^^ Worker, August 9, 

Department, Rockefeller and Stettinus) A^'J^> P- "^^ . •„ j. . 

were to maneuver fascist Argentina into ^^ urge the followmg immediate 

the Pan-American Union and also into course of conduct by our government., 

the United Nations * * * (Wil- Sever diplomatic relations with fascist 

liam Z. Foster, Letter to Luis Carlos ^.Wn^'^jr T^^ ^"^ ^'T^. her from 

Prestes, General Secretary, Communist Y^^ (Committee on International 

Party of Brazil, September 19, 1945; f^^V^r delations National Lawyers 

Political Affairs, vol. XXIV, No. 10 Gn^K Lawyers Guild Review volYI 

(October 1945), p. 916). ^o. 1 (January-February 1946) p. 415) 

8. Mexico 

Full support for the Cardenas govern- Mexican Oil Expropriation 
ment of Mexico in its defense of democ- 

racv and its struggle against the finan- Whereas: 

ciers of fascism, the oil monopolies and (1) The Mexican Government has 

the Tory Chamberlain Government recently expropriated the oil properties 

(William Z. Foster, Win the Western of American and other foreign cor- 

Hemisphere for Democracy and Peace, porations * * * 

The Communist, vol. XVII, No. 7 (July Now, therefore, be it«resolved: 

1938), p. 614 (based on speech delivered We request that the Government of 

at the Tenth Convention of the C. P., the United States shall not engage in 

U. S. A., New York, May 28, 1938)). any acts of intervention on behalf of 

The American imperialists dread the said oil companies, because the action 

growth of a great mass democratic, of the Mexican Government in this 

peace, national liberation movement in matter affords with respect to the oil 

Latin America * * * They seek to companies which have violated the laws 

make the Good Neighbor policy an in- and defied the courts of Mexico no 

strument of American imperialism, as ground for protest by the United States 

they did the old Monroe Doctrine, and (Resolution adopted at Third Annual 

they are thus bringing the greatest pres- Convention of the National Lawyers 

sure * * * upon Roosevelt to Guild at Chicago, February 10-13, 1939; 



make the American government aggres- National Lawyers Guild Quarterly, vol. 2, 

sively support their capitalist interests No. 1 (April 1939), p. 86). 

by violent measures against their im- (Word-order of last lines in original 

perialist rivals and against the Latin text was garbled.) 

American peoples. This imperialist 

pressure must be offset by democratic 

pressure upon Roosevelt by the masses 

in the United States and Latin America 

(ibid., p. 612). 

9. Brazil 

The Fight for Prestes' Freedom Has Just Lawyers Guild Sends Member to Aid 
Begun Prestes — Will Act as Observer at Trial 

of Brazil Popular Leader 

The brutal sentence of 30 years im- 
posed upon Luis Carlos Prestes by the The Council for Pan American De- 
Vargas regime in Brazil is a challenge, mocracy announced today that the 
not only to the oppressed people of this National Lawyers Guild has decided to 
South American country, but to labor send an observer to Brazil to extend legal 
and the public here as well. aid to the defense of Luis Carlos Prestes, 

This is the second out-and-out frame- Chairman of the National Liberation 

up against the Brazilian people's Alliance and leader of the democratic 

"Knight- of Hope." He has been Ian- movement of Brazil, 

guishing in jail under a 16-year sentence The Council for Pan American De- 

for the political "crime" of uniting the mocracy has learned that the retrial of 

people in the progressive Nafional Liber- Prestes has been ordered by President 

ation Alliance The last conviction of Vargas of Brazil because of the desire of 

Prestes and six of his coworkers was the Vargas dictatorship to secure, via 

based on the fantastic slander that he his Special Tribunal, a death sentence 

was the "intellectual author" of the for Prestes. 
murder of a 17-year-old girl. 

This outrage heralds a fresh wave of The National Lawyers Guild is now 

attacks against labor and the Brazilian in communication with the Brazilian 

people as the Vargas dictatorship sells Embassy in Washington to secure 

out to the war plans of the Roosevelt official recognition for its observer, and 

Administration and Wall Street. to guarantee contact with Prestes and 

Notwithstanding this long torturous attendance at his trial * * * {Daily 

sentence against Prestes, the Vargas Worker, December 20, 1940, p. 2). 

dictatorship had intended to murder [The Council for Pan American 

him instantly with a "legal" death decree. Democracy was cited by the U. S. 

This was prevented by the wave of Attorney General as a Communist 

protests which came from the Brazilian organization.] 

people and from labor and liberals in According to The Communist, vol. 

the United States, Mexico, Cuba and XV, No. 11 (November 1936), p. 1076, 

other American countries. the Communist Party of Brazil issued 

Once these protests are raised to the call for the formation of the above- 
greater volume, they can remove Prestes mentioned National Liberation Alliance, 
entirely from the fascist dungeons. 
Demands for his freedom and that of 
his co-workers, should deluge the 
Brazilian embassy in Washington and 
Vargas {Daily Worker, December 2, 
1940, p. 6 (editorial)). 

Continental Activity in Defense of 
Prestes, Brazil's "Knight of Hope" 

(By Dionisio Encina, General Secretary 
of the Communist Party of Mexico) 

The ferocious persecution organized 
against him by Public Enemy No. 1 
of the Brazilian people, Getulio Vargas, 
is directed toward physically liquidat- 



ing the best-loved leader of the Brazilian 

* * * 

By means of this trial it is hoped to 
terrorize the revolutionary movement 
in Brazil. * * * 

The struggle for the liberation of 
Prestes and his companions is a task 
for the whole continental anti-imperial- 
ist movement. * * * 

We can talk, write, agitate, organize 
meetings and demonstrations. We can 
bring up problems in trade-union 
meetings, in political, women's, youth, 
sport or cultural reunions. We can 
demand the intervention of our gov- 
ernments against dictator Vargas. We 
can raise the matter, as in Mexico, in 
our Parliaments. We can mobilize the 
lawyers so that they will expose the 
monstrous legal procedure of the Tri- 
bunal of National Safety and the intel- 
lectuals in order that they may raise 
their voices in indignation. * * * 

Among us, throughout the continent, 
there should be a revolutionary move- 
ment for Luis Carlos Prestes and his 
comrades {Daily Worker, December 26, 
1940, p. 6). 

(By way of identification of Prestes, 
it may be noted that on September 19, 
1945, William Z. Foster, Chairman of 
the Communist Party, U. S. A., wrote 
to "Luis Carlos Prestes, General Secre- 
tary, Communist Party of Brazil" 
(October 1945) Political Affairs, vol. 
XXIV, No. 10, p. 913)). 

10. New Democracies 

Explanatory Note. — The international Communist press refers to the 
Communist governments of Eastern Europe and Asia as "new democracies." 


The facts are that in Eastern Eu- The United States continues to use 

rope in Poland, Czechoslovakia, diplomatic and economic weapons to 

Roumania, Hungary, Bulgaria and discourage the development of new 

Yugoslavia now anti-fascist democ- forms of democratic government in 

racies are arising. In these countries Poland, Yugoslavia, Roumania, and 
the U. S. S. R. has great prestige and Bulgaria. A recent example of this 
mass influence. It enjoys this because interventionist policy is the threat of 
the Soviet Union respects the national Ambassador Arthur Bliss Lane to the 
sovereignty of these nations, encourages Polish Government that we would with- 
and abides by the democratic processes hold economic assistance if Poland con- 
of the peoples and their anti-fascist tinned to carry out a domestic program 
decisions. * * * of appropriation of certain large indus- 

It is the Soviet Union, with its pacts tries. Another example is the implied 
of collective security with her East threat of withdrawal of diplomatic 
European neighbors, as with France, recognition of Yugoslavia unless in- 
China and Britain, which * * * ternal policy was made to conform with 
obstructs the way to reactionary Bloc our concepts. In both these instances 
formations, including that of the pro- our activities have been directed against 
jected Western Boc — an ill-disguised the democratic groups which most 
cover for a renewed cordon sanilaire. * * * actively participated in the resistance 

The Anglo-American bloc postpones to Nazi occupation, and we provided 
or refuses to recognize, and hence to encouragement to the forces of collab- 
reach diplomatic agreements with, most oration in their efforts to reconstitute 
of the democratic anti-fascist govern- a cordon sanilaire around the Soviet 
ments that have come to power in theseftUnion (Report of the Committee on 




countries. The United States and 
Britain intervene in a reactionary way 
in the popular elections and democratic 
processes in these countries. Alter- 
nately, they withhold or withdraw 
diplomatic recognition or necessary 
UNRRA aid, and refuse to grant ade- 
quate credits or loans on a democratic 
basis (Eugene Dennis, The London 
Conference, Political Affairs, vol. XXIV, 
No. 11 (November 1945), pp. 967, 968). 


International Law and Relations; 
adopted by the National Executive 
Board of the Guild at its meeting in 
Washington, D. C, February, 1946; 
Lawyers Guild Review, vol. VI, No. 1 
(January-February 1946), p. 414). 

11. Philippine Republic 

The people need a stop put to mili- 
tary interference in China, repeal of the 
Ball Act hamstringing real Philippine 
independence, freedom for Puerto Rico, 
long-term loans to non-fascist countries 
that need them without regard to polit- 
ical maneuvering, ratification of peace 
treaties jointly arrived at with other 
members of the Big Three (The Worker, 
January 5, 1947, p. 3). 

To help maintain the sovereign in- 
dependence of the Philippine Republic 
and the development of good neighborly 
relations, we recommend: 

1. Repeal of the Philippine Trade 
Act of 1946. 

2. Repeal of Section 601 of the Re- 
habilitation Act of 1946 which made 
payment of war damages conditional on 
Philippine acceptance of the Trade Act. 

3. Execution of a trade agreement 
with long-time credits providing for the 
exchange of Philippine products for 
American industrial equipment (Law- 
yers Guild Review, vol. VII, No. 1, 
January-February 1948, pp. 317, 318). 

12. Puerto Rico 

Grant immediate national independ- Enact legislation acknowledging the 
ence to Puerto Rico (Draft Resolution complete rights of independence of 
of the National Board, CPA, as amend- Puerto Rico with economic assistance 
ed and approved by the National Com- (Lawyers Guild Review, vol. VI, No. 2, 
mittee on June 20, 1945; Political Af- May-June 1946, p. 518). 
fairs, July 1945, p. 584). 

To begin with, the United States must 
concede the full right of self-determina- 
tion to Puerto Rico, without any "ifs," 
"ands," or "buts." In doing this, the 
United States must also grant the neces- 
sary funds to the Puerto Rican people 
as indemnification for their long colo- 
nial status, as well as make trade agree- 
ments of such a character that Puerto 
Rico may prosper economically (U. S. 
Relations with Latin America, William 
Z. Foster; Political Affairs, March 1946, 
p. 209). 

13. American Neutrality 

(Explanatory Note.— Prior to World War II, when the Soviet Union feared 
Nazi aggression, the line of the Communists was prowar, against neutrality and 
for a united front of the democracies against Fascism.) 

communist party, u. s. a. 

The camp of peace faces the problem 
of organizing a serious mass movement 
against war and fascism. * * * 
This problem will be solved in the first 
instance by breaking down the concep- 
tion of isolation and neutrality as the 
road to peace and by preparing the 
masses for active collaboration with the 


The June 1938 issue of the National 
Lawyers Guild Quarterly (p. 255) urged 
the repeal of the existing Neutrality 
Act, while the September 1938 issue 
(p. 304) opposed ammunition shipments 
to Germany. The third national con- 
vention of the guild held in Chicago, 
February 10-13, 1939, urged "the 




peace forces of the world upon the basis 
of a real international policy of peace 
(Excerpts reprinted from the Daily 
Worker of July 3, 1937, from the Central 
Committee Resolution on the Report of 
Earl Browder, National Secretary of the 
Communist Party of the United States). 


National Munitions Control Board to 
terminate the practice of aj^proving 
munitions exports to Germany" {Na- 
tional Lawyers Guild Quarterly April 
1939, p. 86) ; warned against "Fascist 
economic and ideological penetration in 
Mexico"; and condemned "German 
military aggression in Spain." 

September 1937 issue of the Guild 
News, official organ of its New York 
chapter (p. 4) : "The Executive Commit- 
tee has decided that our present neutral- 
ity legislation must be condemned for its 
marked deficiences and has passed a 
resolution urging Congress to amend 
the embargo, provisions of the Act so 
as to make them applicable only to 
aggressors * * *. The Committee 
has also decided to call upon the Presi- 
dent to apply the existing provisions of 
the Neutrality Act to Italy and Ger- 
many on the ground that they are en- 
gaged in a state of war with the legiti- 
mate Government of Spain." 

14. World War II As Imperialist 

(Explanatory Note. — The Communist Party, USA, denounced the war as 
imperialist as soon as the Stalin-Hitler Pact was signed on August 23, 1939.) 

communist party, u. s. a. 


The Communist Party has issued as 
the slogan of the day: Keep America 
Out of the Imperialist War!" In this 
slogan are implicit what we consider the 
only correct answers to all those pressing 
questions about this war. 

The course of events since the signing 
of the Soviet-German Non-Aggression 
Pact has confirmed a hundred times over 
the correctness of that action from every 
point of view except that which in- 
corrigibly against mountains of evi- 
dence, considers Chamberlain and the 
British Empire the full and sufficient 
foundation for international order and 
world peace (Speech of Earl Browder, 
General Secretary, Communist Party, 
USA, delivered at Town Hall, Phila- 
delphia, September 29, 1939). 

For the flower of the American youth 
the right to life itself is challenged by 
those who claim the privilege to con- 
script them and to throw them into 
reactionary war for the benefit of the 
propertied classes. * * * But with 
11,000,000 Americans unemployed, the 
Democratic Party Administration is 
sacrificing all social legislation, unem- 
ployment and old-age insurance and 
educational guarantees for the youth, 
in order to pour all resources of the 
nation as well as the blood of our people 
into the scramble of monopoly capital 
for domination of the world (Election 

The following active leaders of the 
National Lawyers Guild, members of 
the lawyers committee to keep the 
United States out of war, attended the 
Emergency Peace Mobilization. From 
there they sent the President a telegram 
of protest to condemn the Burke- Wads- 
worth conscription bill as "unconstitu- 
tional and as representing a violent 
upheaval in the social, political and 
economic life of our country" and as 
"a direct step toward American involve- 
ment in war": Samuel M. BUnken, Leo 
Linder, Edward Lamb, Pearl M. Hart, 
Abraham J. Isserman, Maurice Sugar, 




Platform of the Communist Party, 
1940 (p. 3)). 

As events have shown, the joint 
"national unity" drive of the war- 
mongering social reformists and the 
bourgeoisie has not been crowned with 
too much success. * * * The anti- 
imperialist stand of the American 
Youth Congress, the National Negro 
Congress, and the nation-wide Emer- 
gency Peace Mobilization at Chicago, 
etc., bear eloquent testimony to this 
* * * This explains, in part, the 
discrepancy between the mass opposi- 
tion which has developed against the 
interventionist moves and unneutral 
acts of the government and Congress in 
foreign affairs, and, above all, to the 
military conscription bill, and the 
limited opposition registered against the 
colossal armaments program and the 
dictatorial "national emergency" powers 
granted to and exercised by the Presi- 
dent (Eugene Dennis in The Com- 
munist, September 1940, pp. 822, 823). 

Keep America Out of the Imperialist 
War! Oppose all war loans and credits 
to the imperialist warmakers and their 
lackeys. Repudiate the militarization 
and armaments program (Resolution of 
the National Committee of the Com- 
munist Party, USA, from The Com- 
munist, March 1940, p. 215). 

Following the Stalin-Hitler pact, the 
Communist Party denounced the war 
as "imperialist"; urged a policy of isola- 
tion; opposed the national defense 
program, conscription, and aid to the 
AUied Nations. It played the leading 
role in building up the American Peace 
Mobilization which picketed the White 
House and in strikes in defense in- 
dustries such as Allis-Chalmers, Inter- 
national Harvester, North American 
Aviation, and Vultee Aircraft. 

15. SEcd^fD Front 

(Explanatory Note. — Immediately after Hitler's attack on the Soviet Union, 
Communist forces throughout the world demanded the immediate opening of a 
Second Front, although these forces had opposed the war as imperialistic prior 
to that time.) 

national lawyers guild 

and Martin Popper, Secretary of the 
guild (Daily Worker, September 4, 1940, 
p. 3). 

The fourth annual convention of the 
guild, held May 29, 30, and June 1, 1940, 
denounced alleged attempts to use the 
European war as a "shield to cover 
repression and as an excuse for reaction" 
{Daily Worker, June 2, 1940). 

In line with the guild's pohcy of pro- 
tecting those engaged in retarding the 
national defense effort were the resolu- 
tions adopted at the meeting of its 
national executive board on February 
22, 24, 1941, against the Model Sabotage 
Prevention Act, compulsory arbitration 
in labor disputes, cooling-off periods 
before resorting to the strike, and anti- 
strike legislation (Lawyers Guild Re- 
view, March 1941, pp. 26 to 29). 

The position 1 have taken excludes, of 
course, the notion that labor disputes 
shall be settled by compulsory arbitra- 
tion or that they shall be restrained by 
" Work or Fight Orders." These meth- 
ods are unnecessary as they are un- 
desirable (Harry Sacher in the Lawyers 
Guild Quarterly, December 1940, p. 28). 

COMMUNIST party, U. S. A. 

While Hitler flings everything into 
the Eastern Front, labor should urge 
Washington and London to smash 
Hitler in the West {Daily Worker, 
October 9, 1941, p. 1). 


"Robert W. Kenny, President of the 
Guild, sent a letter to President Roose- 
velt recently declaring that the Na- 
tional Executive Board of the Guild by 
an overwhelming majority had adopted 




a statement urging the opening of a 
second front in Europe without delay." 
(The latter is quoted — no date given — 
and a copy of the statement is set forth; 
it is quoted in part:) 

"It seems clear to us that if the 
present advance of the Axis forces in 
the Soviet Union is not stopped, victory 
for the United Nations will at least be 
delayed for many years with the 
enormous cost in human life and 
sacrifice that will entail. Indeed we 
believe that the security and inde- 
pendence of our nation is critically at 
stake. It seems evident to us that only 
the immediate opening of a second 
front will make it possible to assure 
the victory of the United Nations 
* * *" (Laivyers Guild Review, Vol. 
II, No. V (September 1942) p. 45. 
Article: "The Guild and the Second 


It is our war and it must be won. It 
must be won in the battle of produc- 
tion, in the battle of delivery, and in 
the battle of arms for the annihilation 
of the enemy * * * j^ means an 
all-out participation in the Battle of the 
Atlantic, for its eastern shores, for the 
freedom of the seas.- It means all 
measures necessary to bring about the 
opening of a new front in Western 
Europe (The Communist, vol. XX, No. 
11 (November 1941), pp. 956, 957). 

For a Second Front in Europe! {The 
Communist, April 1942, p. 199). 

Open A Western Front in Europe! 
(The Communist, May 1942, p. 296). 

* * * fight for and demand the 
opening of a Second Front against 
Hitler in Europe immediately {The 
Communist, June 1942, p. 401). 

The demand for the Second Front for 
the all-out offensive to smash Hitler in 
1942, embraces ever wider circles of the 
population and becomes more insistent 
{The Communist, July 1942, p. 488). 

No Delay in Opening the Western 
Front! {The Communist, August 1942, 
p. 579). 

It is time to Open the Western Front 
Against Hitler Without Further Delay 
(The Communist, September 1942, p. 

16. Spain 

* * * Break diplomatic and eco- The National Lawyers Guild called 
nomic ties with Franco-Spain * * * fQj. "severance of all economic and 
(1948 Election Platform, CP-USA, diplomatic relations with Franco Spain" 
Political Affairs, September 1948, pp. (National Lawyers Guild, Convention 
938-939). Resolutions, February 1949. Lawyers 

Guild Review, Winter 1949, p. 56). 

(Vigorous opposition to Franco by 
both the Communist Party and the 
National Lawyers Guild, throughout 
the period of instant survey, is a matter 
of public record.) Daily Worker; The 
Com,munist; Political Affairs; National 
Lawyers Guild Quarterly; Lawyers 
Guild Review. 

17. Soviet Union 

Red Army hurls back invading Fin- Osmond K. Fraenkel, Guild Vice 
nish troops, crosses frontier {Daily President, was quoted as saying that the 
Worker (headline), December 1, 1939, National Executive Board in December 
p. 1). 1939 denounced the Soviet invasion of 

Finland {New York Times, June 6, 
Wall Street Uses Finland for War 1940, p. 27). 

The newspapers of the country are 
giving the American people a heavy dose 
of war propaganda on the latest develop- 
ments in Finland. 

The press has obviously determined 
to drug the intelligence of the American 
people, to paralyze all common-sense 




questioning in a wave of war hysteria 
aimed at the Soviet Union. 

The remembered Hes of the press on 
the Munich "peace" are being surpassed. 

The plain truths are twisted or 

The Finnish bourgeois-landlord rulers, 
incited and supported by world impe- 
rialism, continued their violations of the 
Soviet borders — they attacked at two 
points yesterday morning. They were 
repulsed by the Soviet Union which took 
the necessary steps in defense of its 
national interest. 

It is the sheerest hypocrisy for the 
press to pretend moral indignation at 
"a little country" engaged with a "big 
country like the Soviet Union." They 
know that behind the Finnish ruling 
cliques stand the mighty forces of Brit- 
ish and American imperialism, goading, 
encouraging, supporting the hostile acts 
of Finland. 

The Finnish bourgeois-landlord cliques 
were willing to play this role of provoca- 
teur. They stood at the Soviet borders 
holding open the doors of war. The 
Soviet Union yesterday closed the doors. 
No war dogs of world imperialism will 
pass through (Daily Worker, December 
1, 1939 (editorial), p. 1). 

Forge the friendship and peaceful co- 
operation of the American-Soviet-Brit- 
ish coalition and all the freedom-loving 
peoples * * * (Statement issued 
March 5, 1946, by National Secretariat 
of the Communist Partv, Political 
Affairs, April 1946, p. 291).^ 

End the "cold war," * * * Re- 
store American-Soviet friendship, the 
key to world peace and the fulfillment 
of the people's hope in the United Na- 
tions * * * (Political Affairs, Sep- 
tember 1948, pp. 938-939, Article, 1948 
Election Platform of the Communist 


Take steps to restore Anglo-American- 
Soviet unity as the cornerstone of coop- 
eration among the United Nations 
* * * (Lawyers Guild Review, vol. 
VI, No. 2, May-June 1946, p. 518). 

* * * The revitalization of coop- 
erative relations among the great powers 
and especially between the United 
States and the Soviet Union, points the 
path to peace. To aid in the revitaliza- 
tion of the cooperative relations among 
the great powers it is imperative that 
the United States and the Soviet Union 
compose their differences in the briefest 
possible time and lay the groundwork 
for the composing of differences among 
other nations and thus advance the 
cause of peace and the principles and 
purposes of the United Nations, 

* * * Adherence to the principle 
of concurrence and cooperation will 
eliminate the need to consider measures 
inconsistent with the spirit of the United 
Nations, such as the contemplated 
North Atlantic Pact or any other mili- 
tary arrangement by any powers which 
may breed hostility and suspicion 
* * * (Lawyers Guild Review, vol. 
IX, No. 1, Winter 1949, pp. 55-56). 



18. Atlantic Pact 


Despite all threats and persecutions 
we will continue resolutely to work for 
peace. Instead of an aggressive North 
Atlantic Pact — a resurrected anti-Com- 
munist Axis — we shall continue, in 
company with millions of other Ameri- 
cans, to urge that our nation shall sign a 
Pact of Friendship and Peace with our 
great wartime ally, the Soviet Union 
{Political Affairs, April 1949, p. 4; 
article: "Is the Advocacy of Peace 
Treason?" by William Z. Foster and 
Eugene Dennis). 

American trade-unionists, workers, 
all progressives and peace-loving Ameri- 
cans must make their voices heard. 
End the cold warl Scrap the Atlantic 
Alliance for aggression! Defend the 
hard-won democratic rights of the 
people! Stop the war preparations! 
Jobs and homes — not guns! For an 
American-Soviet Peace Pact! {Political 
Affairs, April 1949, p. 17; article: 
"The Struggle for Peace" by Marvin 


The Guild adopted a "Resolution on 
the Cold War in the Light of the New 
Concept of International Law" which 
called for an end to the "cold war" and 
the "revitalization of cooperative rela- 
tions among the great powers and es- 
pecially between the United States and 
the Soviet Union." "Adherence to the 
principles of concurrence and coopera- 
tion will eliminate the need to consider 
measures inconsistent with the spirit 
of the United Nations, such as the con- 
templated North Atlantic Pact or any 
other military arrangement * * *" 
{Lawyers Guild Review, Vol. 9, No. 1, 
Winter 1949). 

19. Atomic Energy 

communist party, U. 8. A. 

Put an end to atom bomb diplomacy 
which is paving the way to World 
War III. 

The Churchill-Byrnes-Truman * * * 
"outlook is to impose their will on the 
world, including the Soviet Union, by 
overwhelming military power based on 
the atom bomb (Statement issued on 
March 5, 1946^ by the National Secre- 
tary of the Communist Party, USA; 
Political Affairs, vol. XXV, No. 4 
(April 1946), pp. 292-293). 

What a country does on a specific 
issue at home is a pretty good index to 
how it treats the same issue in its foreign 
policy. This is particularly true of our 
government's pohcy on the inter- 
national control of atomic energy. 
The Baruch Plan was designed by the 
same men who have established monop- 
oly-control over atomic energy at 
home * * * Their objective, 
plainly discernible in the domestic and 
international control policy, is to retain 
the monopoly of atomic energy at 
home and abroad, for war or for peace. 
Here is to be found the real obstacle to 
atomic disarmament and the effective 
outlawing of the atomic bomb {Daily 
Worker, Nov. 4, 1946, p. 6; article: 
"The Trustified Atom" by James 


The National Lawyers Guild re- 
portedly (1) criticized American secrecy 
concerning atomic bomb, (2) urged that 
control of atomic energy be placed with 
the UN Security Council, (3) stated 
U. S. Atomic bomb policy "has antag- 
onized the Soviet Government, alarmed 
the French Government and created 
disquiet among the English" {Daily 
Worker, December 27, 1945). 

Our insistence upon maintaining a 
monopoly of the "secret" atomic bomb 
manufacture has caused widespread 
doubt, throughout the world, regarding 
our peaceful intentions {Laioyers Guild 
Review, vol. VI, No. 1, p. 415, January- 
February 1946). 



* ♦ * The main forces in the * ♦ * Wq proposed: That our 
world today are: * * * the camp government announce its immediate 
of the monopolists who are plotting readiness to enter into an international 
atomic war and the world-wide peoples' agreement providing for the prompt 
camp of peace in which the Socialist destruction of all atomic weapons and 
Soviet Union plays the leading role all other weapons adaptable to mass 
(Political Affairs, April 1949, pp. 64- destruction and the complete cessation 
66; article: "The Atom Bomb; Myth of all further production thereof. The 
andTruth" by Joseph Clark). international agreement should provide 

for establishing effective compliance 
with its provisions and prescribe sanc- 
tions for violation thereof. The aboli- 
tion of the veto power should not be 
required as a condition to reaching an 
agreement on atomic energy {Lavyers 
Guild Review, May-June 1946, p. 521). 

20. Bretton Woods 

The labor movement must speak up During April 1945, the National 
for the Bretton Woods plan as a whole, Lawyers Guild in San Francisco spon- 
and demand that it be reported out of sored a series of talks, under the direc- 
committee intact. The rest of the world tion of Benjamin Dreyfus of the San 
is watching the United States on this Francisco Chapter. The talks were 
issue. Our allies will not believe that reported to have followed the Russian 
we have abandoned political isolation views that the Dumbarton Oaks agree- 
if we still permit the narrow, private ment should not be amended and that 
interests of a handful of bankers to the Bretton Woods proposals should 
keep us bound to economic nationalism, be adopted as they were. 
* * * The passage of the Bretton 
Woods Plan before April 25, certainly 
during the San Francisco conference, 
is the best way of guaranteeing the 
parley's success (Editorial, Daily 
Worker, April 6, 1945, p. 6). 

The failure to ratify the Bretton 
Woods agreement, without crippling 
amendments, would speed up the ten- 
dencies revealed by the aviation con- 
ference. * * * (From Teheran to 
Crimes, by Joseph Starobin, Political 
Affairs, March 1945, p. 219). 

21. Dumbarton Oaks Agreement 

The Dumbarton Oaks draft provides (Please see material set forth immedi- 
for the settlement of disputes on a re- ately above under the caption, "Bretton 
gional basis, where possible. But only Woods.") 
with the prior authorization of the 
Security Council itself. We oppose any 
changes in this respect (Editorial, Dis- 
cussing Dumbarton Oaks, Daily Worker, 
March 19, 1945, p. 6). 

The trade-unions must be particularly 
alert to back up the Dumbarton Oaks 
and Bretton Woods proposals, without 
emasculating amendments. These are 
the very heart of the Crimean postwar 
program, and it would be a disaster if 
the reactionary opposition were allowed 
to devitalize them as it is now trying to 
do (Article: "The Danger of American 
Imperialism in the Postwar Period," 
William Z. Foster, Political Affairs, 
June 1945, p. 499). 



22. Yalta-Potsdam 


The immediate basic cause for the 
deterioration of relations between the 
Soviet Union and the British- American 
imperialists lies in the fact that Britain 
and America have refused to carry out 
the Yalta and Potsdam pledges. 

Britain and America have refused to 
denazify Germany and crush feudal mil- 
itarist reaction in Japan. They have 
refused to let the small countries of 
Europe decide their own fate. They 
are acting to stifle all freedom move- 
ments in India, Egypt, Indonesia, etc. 

Carrying out the Yalta-Potsdam 
agreements would restore Big Three 
peaceful working relationships (State- 
ment of the Secretariat, CP-USA, Poli- 
ical Affairs, April 1946, p. 292). 


* * * at Yalta a new epoch in 
international law was unfolded through 
the establishment of the principle of the 
concurrence or unanimity of the Great 
Powers * * *_ 

But it was at San Francisco soon after 
the present administration took office 
that the country first witnessed a whole 
series of official actions constituting a 
departure from the policies to which the 
United States had subscribed in the 
Atlantic Charter and at Moscow, Tehe- 
ran, Yalta, and Dumbarton Oaks * * *. 

The National Lawyers Guild vigor- 
ously opposed the whole policy of the 
United States delegation as a flagrant 
violation of the spirit and content of 
United Nations unity (Resolution of the 
Committee on International Law and 
Regulations, National Lawyers Guild, 
Lawyers Guild Review, January-Febru- 
ary 1946, pp. 412-413). 

* * * since February, the pattern 
of our foreign policy has not been 
altered. The present trend can and 
must be halted * * * we urge the 
following immediate course of conduct 
by our government: 

Take steps to restore Anglo-American- 
Soviet unity * * *. 

Fulfill the Potsdam agreement to 
complete the destruction of Nazism and 
mihtarism. Bring to trial German in- 
dustriahsts as war criminals * * *_ 

Establish an international war crimes 
tribunal for the prosecution and punish- 
ment of Japanese war criminals, includ- 
ing Japanese industrialists and the 

Extend financial credits to nationsin 
need without interference in their in- 
ternal affairs (National Lawyers Guild 
Convention Resolutions, July 1946, 
Lawyers Guild Review, May-June 1946, 
pp. 517-518).